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Human Host-Derived Cytokines Associated with Plasmodium vivax Transmission from Acute Malaria Patients to Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes in the Peruvian Amazon

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  • University of California San Diego, San Diego, California; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima, Peru

Infection of mosquitoes by humans is not always successful in the setting of patent gametocytemia. This study tested the hypothesis that pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines are associated with transmission of Plasmodium vivax to Anopheles darlingi mosquitoes in experimental infection. Blood from adults with acute, non-severe P. vivax malaria was fed to laboratory-reared F1 An. darlingi mosquitoes. A panel of cytokines at the time of mosquito infection was assessed in patient sera and levels compared among subjects who did and did not infect mosquitoes. Overall, blood from 43 of 99 (43%) subjects led to mosquito infection as shown by oocyst counts. Levels of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly elevated in vivax infection and normalized 3 weeks later. The anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was significantly higher in nontransmitters compared with top transmitters but was not in TNF-α and IFN-γ. The IL-10 elevation during acute malaria was associated with P. vivax transmission blocking.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Joseph M. Vinetz, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive 0741, George Palade Laboratories Room 125, La Jolla, CA 92093. E-mail: jvinetz@ucsd.edu

Financial support: This work was supported by NIH/NIAID grant 1U19AI08968, K24AI068903, and R01AI067727, NIH/Fogarty International Center grant D43TW007120, and the National Institutes of Health Office of the Director, Fogarty International Center, Office of AIDS Research, National Cancer Center, National Eye Institute, National Heart, Blood, and Lung Institute, National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research, National Institute On Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Health, and NIH Office of Women's Health and Research through the International Clinical Research Scholars and Fellows Program at Vanderbilt University (R24 TW007988), and the American Relief and Recovery Act.

Authors' addresses: Shira R. Abeles, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, E-mail: sabeles@ucsd.edu. Raul Chuquiyauri and Joseph M. Vinetz, University of California San Diego School of Medicine, La Jolla, CA, and Instituto de Medicina Tropical Alexander von Humboldt, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, San Martin de Porres, Lima, Peru, E-mails: rachuqui@ucsd.edu or raulharo@yahoo.com and jvinetz@ucsd.edu. Carlos Tong, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Satellite Laboratory, Iquitos, Peru, E-mail: carlostongrios@gmail.com.

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