• 1.

    World Health Organization, 2010. Dengue in the Western Pacific Region. Geneva: World Health Organization.

  • 2.

    World Bank, 2010. World Development Indicators: Lao PDR. Washington, DC: World Bank.

  • 3.

    Rianthavorn P, Prianantathavorn K, Wuttirattanakowit N, Theamboonlers A, Poovorawan Y, 2010. An outbreak of chikungunya in southern Thailand from 2008 to 2009 caused by African strains with A226V mutation. Int J Infect Dis 14: e161e165.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Tsuda Y, Kobayashi J, Nambanya S, Miyagi I, Toma T, Phompida S, Manivang K, 2002. An ecological survey of dengue vector mosquitos in central Lao PDR. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33: 6367.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Jennings CD, Phommasack B, Sourignadeth B, Kay BH, 1995. Aedes aegypti control in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, with reference to copepods. Am J Trop Med Hyg 53: 324330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Christophers SR, 1960. Aedes aegypti (L.): The Yellow Fever Mosquito. London: Cambridge University Press.

  • 7.

    Sam IC, Chan YF, Chan SY, Loong SK, Chin HK, Hooi PS, Ganeswrie R, Abubakar S, 2009. Chikungunya virus of Asian and Central/East African genotypes in Malaysia. J Clin Virol 46: 180183.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Thavara U, Tawatsin A, Pengsakul T, Bhakdeenuan P, Chanama S, Anantapreecha S, Molito C, Chompoosri J, Thammapalo S, Sawanpanyalert P, Siriyasatien P, 2009. Outbreak of chikungunya fever in Thailand and virus detection in field population of vector mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 40: 951962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Braks MA, Honorio NA, Lourencqo-De-Oliveira R, Juliano SA, Lounibos LP, 2003. Convergent habitat segregation of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in southeastern Brazil and Florida. J Med Entomol 40: 785794.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Chan YC, Chan KL, Ho BC, 1971. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 1. Distribution and density. Bull World Health Organ 44: 617627.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Tsuda Y, Suwonkerd W, Chawprom S, Prajakwong S, Takagi M, 2006. Different spatial distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along an urban-rural gradient and the relating environmental factors examined in three villages in northern Thailand. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 22: 222228.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    World Health Organization, 2009. Dengue: Guidelines for Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention and Control. New Edition WHO/HTM/NTD/DEN/2009.1. Geneva: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hiscox A, Winter CH, Vongphrachanh P, Sisouk T, Somoulay V, Phompida S, Kaul S, Sananikhom P, Nguyen TY, Paul RE, Brey P, Bryant JE, 2010. Serological investigations of flavivirus prevalence in Khammouane Province, Lao People's Democratic Republic, 2007–2008. Am J Trop Med Hyg 83: 11661169.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Rattanarithikul R, Harbach RE, Harrison BA, Panthusiri P, Coleman RE, Richardson JH, 2010. Illustrated keys to the mosquitoes of Thailand. VI. Tribe Aedini. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 41 (Suppl 1): 1225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Stojanovich CJ, Scott HG, 1966. Illustrated Key to Mosquitoes of Vietnam. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, Communicable Disease Center.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Huang YM, 1979. Medical entomology studies - XI. The subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in the Oriental region with keys to the species (Diptera: Culicidae). Contrib Am Entomol Inst 15: 182.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Southwood TR, Murdle G, Yasuno M, Tonn RJ, Reader PM, 1972. Studies on the life budget of Aedes aegypti in Wat Samphaya, Bangkok, Thailand. Bull World Health Organ 46: 211226.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Focks DA, Sackett SR, Bailey DL, Dame DA, 1981. Observations on container-breeding mosquitoes in New Orleans, Louisiana, with an estimate of the population density of Aedes aegypti (L.). Am J Trop Med Hyg 30: 13291335.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Knox TB, Nguyen YT, Vu NS, Kay BH, Ryan PA, 2010. Quantitative relationships between immature and emergent adult Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in water storage container habitats. J Med Entomol 47: 748758.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Focks DA, Chadee DD, 1997. Pupal survey: an epidemiologically significant surveillance method for Aedes aegypti: an example using data from Trinidad. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 159167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Higa Y, Yen NT, Kawada H, Son TH, Hoa NT, Takagi M, 2010. Geographic distribution of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus collected from used tires in Vietnam. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 26: 19.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Fontenille D, Rodhain F, 1989. Biology and distribution of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti in Madagascar. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 5: 219225.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Chang LH, Hsu EL, Teng HJ, Ho CM, 2007. Differential survival of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae exposed to low temperatures in Taiwan. J Med Entomol 44: 205210.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Chan KL, Ho BC, Chan YC, 1971. Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in Singapore City. 2. Larval habitats. Bull World Health Organ 44: 629633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    O'Meara GF, Evans LF Jr, Gettman AD, Cuda JP, 1995. Spread of Aedes albopictus and decline of Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Florida. J Med Entomol 32: 554562.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Juliano SA, 1998. Species introduction and replacement among mosquitoes: interspecific resource competition or apparent competition? Ecology 79: 255268.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Lounibos LP, 2002. Invasions by insect vectors of human disease. Annu Rev Entomol 47: 233266.

  • 28.

    Barrera R, 1996. Competition and resistance to starvation in larvae of container-inhabiting Aedes mosquitoes. Ecol Entomol 21: 117127.

  • 29.

    Service MW, 1993. Mosquito Ecology Field Sampling Methods. London: Elsevier Applied Science.

  • 30.

    Reiter P, Amador MA, Anderson RA, Clark GG, 1995. Short report: dispersal of Aedes aegypti in an urban area after blood feeding as demonstrated by rubidium-marked eggs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 52: 177179.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Harrington LC, Scott TW, Lerdthusnee K, Coleman RC, Costero A, Clark GG, Jones JJ, Kitthawee S, Kittayapong P, Sithiprasasna R, Edman JD, 2005. Dispersal of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti within and between rural communities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 209220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Gratz NG, 2004. Critical review of the vector status of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol 18: 215227.

  • 33.

    Tun-Lin W, Lenhart A, Nam VS, Rebollar-Tellez E, Morrison AC, Barbazan P, Cote M, Midega J, Sanchez F, Manrique-Saide P, Kroeger A, Nathan MB, Meheus F, Petzold M, 2009. Reducing costs and operational constraints of dengue vector control by targeting productive breeding places: a multi-country non-inferiority cluster randomized trial. Trop Med Int Health 14: 11431153.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Wong J, Stoddard ST, Astete H, Morrison AC, Scott TW, 2011. Oviposition site selection by the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and its implications for dengue control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e1015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Aldstadt J, Koenraadt CJ, Fansiri T, Kijchalao U, Richardson J, Jones JW, Scott TW, 2011. Ecological modeling of Aedes aegypti (L.) pupal production in rural Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e940.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Seng CM, Setha T, Nealon J, Socheat D, 2009. Pupal sampling for Aedes aegypti (L.) surveillance and potential stratification of dengue high-risk areas in Cambodia. Trop Med Int Health 14: 12331240.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Heintze C, Velasco Garrido M, Kroeger A, 2007. What do community-based dengue control programmes achieve? A systematic review of published evaluations. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 101: 317325.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Vu SN, Nguyen TY, Kay BH, Marten GG, Reid JW, 1998. Eradication of Aedes aegypti from a village in Vietnam, using copepods and community participation. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 657660.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Vu SN, Nguyen TY, Tran VP, Truong UN, Le QM, Le VL, Le TN, Bektas A, Briscombe A, Aaskov JG, Ryan PA, Kay BH, 2005. Elimination of dengue by community programs using Mesocyclops (Copepoda) against Aedes aegypti in central Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 6773.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Kay B, Vu SN, 2005. New strategy against Aedes aegypti in Vietnam. Lancet 365: 613617.

  • 41.

    Kay BH, Nam VS, Tien TV, Yen NT, Phong TV, Diep VT, Ninh TU, Bektas A, Aaskov JG, 2002. Control of Aedes vectors of dengue in three provinces of Vietnam by use of Mesocyclops (Copepoda) and community-based methods validated by entomologic, clinical, and serological surveillance. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 4048.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Sinh Nam V, Thi Yen N, Minh Duc H, Cong Tu T, Trong Thang V, Hoang Le N, Hoang San L, Le Loan L, Que Huong VT, Kim Khanh LH, Thuy Trang HT, Lam LZ, Kutcher SC, Aaskov JG, Jeffery JA, Ryan PA, Kay BH, 2012. Community-based control of Aedes aegypti by using Mesocyclops in southern Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg 86: 850859.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Kroeger A, Lenhart A, Ochoa M, Villegas E, Levy M, Alexander N, McCall PJ, 2006. Effective control of dengue vectors with curtains and water container covers treated with insecticide in Mexico and Venezuela: cluster randomised trials. BMJ 332: 12471252.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Vanlerberghe V, Villegas E, Oviedo M, Baly A, Lenhart A, McCall PJ, Van der Stuyft P, 2011. Evaluation of the effectiveness of insecticide treated materials for household level dengue vector control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5: e994.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Lenhart A, Orelus N, Maskill R, Alexander N, Streit T, McCall PJ, 2008. Insecticide-treated bednets to control dengue vectors: preliminary evidence from a controlled trial in Haiti. Trop Med Int Health 13: 5667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 423 178 4
PDF Downloads 110 39 3
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Risk Factors for the Presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Domestic Water-Holding Containers in Areas Impacted by the Nam Theun 2 Hydroelectric Project, Laos

View More View Less
  • Institut Pasteur du Laos, Vientiane, Laos; Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, United Kingdom; London School of Economics, London, United Kingdom; Khammouane Provincial Health Office, Thakhek, Laos; Nam Theun 2 Power Company, Vientiane, Laos; School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, United Kingdom
Restricted access

We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Alexandra Hiscox, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, PO Box 8031, 6700 EH Wageningen, The Netherlands. E-mail: alexandra.hiscox@wur.nl
† Deceased.

Financial support: This study was supported by the Fondation EDF Diversiterre. Steven W. Lindsay was supported by the Research and Policy for Infectious Disease Dynamics Program of the Science and Technology Directory, Department of Homeland Security, and Fogarty International Center, National Institutes of Health.

Authors' addresses: Alexandra Hiscox, Laboratory of Entomology, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Wageningen, The Netherlands, E-mail: alexandra.hiscox@wur.nl. Angela Kaye and Ian Banks, Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK, E-mails: angela.kaye@lshtm.ac.uk and ian.banks@lshtm.ac.uk. Khamsing Vongphayloth, Institut Pasteur du Laos, Sisattnanak District, Vientiane, Laos, E-mail: khamsing-v@live.com. Michele Piffer, Department of Economics, London School of Economics, London, UK, E-mail: m.piffer@lse.ac.uk. Phasouk Khammanithong, Khammouane Provincial Health Office, Thakhek City, Khammouane Province, Laos, E-mail: pphaso@yahoo.com. Pany Sananikhom and Surinder Kaul, Nam Theun 2 Power Company, Nongbone Village, Vientiane, Laos, E-mails pany@namtheun2.com and surinder@namtheun2.com. Steven W. Lindsay, School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham, UK, E-mail: s.w.lindsay@durham.ac.uk. Paul T. Brey, Institut Pasteur du Laos, Sisattnanak District, Vientiane, Laos, E-mail: paul.brey@pasteur.fr.

Save