Ecology of Potential West Nile Virus Vectors in Southeastern Louisiana: Enzootic Transmission in the Relative Absence of Culex quinquefasciatus

Marvin S. Godsey Jr. Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Raymond J. King Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Kristen Burkhalter Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Mark Delorey Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Leah Colton Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Dawn Charnetzky Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Genevieve Sutherland Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Vanessa O. Ezenwa Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Lawrence A. Wilson Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Michelle Coffey Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Lesley E. Milheim Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Viki G. Taylor Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Charles Palmisano Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Dawn M. Wesson Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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Stephen C. Guptill Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; US Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, Virginia; Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, Georgia; St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, Louisiana; Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana

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A study of West Nile virus (WNV) ecology was conducted in St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, from 2002 to 2004. Mosquitoes were collected weekly throughout the year using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps placed at 1.5 and 6 m above the ground and gravid traps. A total of 379,466 mosquitoes was collected. WNV was identified in 32 pools of mosquitoes comprising four species; 23 positive pools were from Culex nigripalpus collected during 2003. Significantly more positive pools were obtained from Cx. nigripalpus collected in traps placed at 6 m than 1.5 m that year, but abundance did not differ by trap height. In contrast, Cx. nigripalpus abundance was significantly greater in traps placed at 6 m in 2002 and 2004. Annual temporal variation in Cx. nigripalpus peak seasonal abundance has important implications for WNV transmission in Louisiana. One WNV-positive pool, from Cx. erraticus, was collected during the winter of 2004, showing year-round transmission. The potential roles of additional mosquito species in WNV transmission in southeastern Louisiana are discussed.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Marvin S. Godsey Jr., Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521. E-mail: mjg9@cdc.gov

Financial support: Funding for this study was provided by the US Geological Survey and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Authors' addresses: Marvin S. Godsey Jr., Kristen Burkhalter, Mark Delorey, Leah Colton, Dawn Charnetzky, and Genevieve Sutherland, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: mjg9@cdc.gov, ktb3@cdc.gov, esy7@cdc.gov, ant6@cdc.gov, dcharnetzky@yahoo.com, and genevieve_sutherland@yahoo.com. Raymond J. King, Public Health Informatics and Technology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: rnk8@cdc.gov. Vanessa O. Ezenwa, U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, VA; Current address: Odum School of Ecology and Department of Infectious Diseases, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, E-mail: vezenwa@uga.edu. Lawrence A. Wilson, Fernbank Science Center, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: larry.wilson@fernbank.edu. Michelle Coffey, Lesley E. Milheim, and Stephen C. Guptill, U.S. Geological Survey, Eastern Geography Science Center, Reston, VA, E-mails: mcoffey@usgs.gov, lmilheim@usgs.gov, and sguptill@guptillgeoscience.com. Viki G. Taylor and Charles Palmisano, St. Tammany Parish Mosquito Abatement District, Slidell, LA, E-mails: bugladyviki@yahoo.com and chuck_palmisano@yahoo.com. Dawn M. Wesson, Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, E-mail: wesson@tulane.edu.

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