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Impact of Indoor Residual Spraying of Lambda-Cyhalothrin on Malaria Prevalence and Anemia in an Epidemic-Prone District of Muleba, North-Western Tanzania

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  • National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania; National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Center, Muheza, Tanzania; National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Research Triangle International Malaria Initiative, Nairobi, Kenya

The Government of Tanzania introduced indoor residual spraying (IRS) in Muleba district in north-western Tanzania after frequent malaria epidemics. Malaria parasitological baseline and two cross-sectional follow-up surveys were conducted in villages under the IRS program and those not under IRS to assess the impact of IRS intervention. After two rounds of IRS intervention there was a significant reduction of malaria parasitological indices in both two villages. In IRS villages overall, parasitemia prevalence was reduced by 67.2%, splenomegaly was reduced by 75.8%, whereas anemia was reduced by 50.5%. There was also a decline of malaria parasite density from 896.4 at baseline to 128.8 at second follow-up survey. Similarly, there was also a reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages; however, parasitological indices in IRS villages remained far below the levels in non-IRS villages. The reduction of malaria parasitological indices in non-IRS villages might have been contributed by interventions other than IRS.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Fabian M. Mashauri, National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, PO Box 1462, Mwanza, Tanzania. E-mail: mashauri@hotmail.com

Financial support: This study was supported by the U.S. President's Malaria Initiative through Research Triangle Institute - International and the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, of the United Republic of Tanzania. The sponsor had no role in the study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing the manuscript.

Authors' addresses: Fabian M. Mashauri, Safari M. Kinung'hi, Godfrey M. Kaatano, Coleman Kishamawe, Joseph R. Mwanga, Soori E. Nnko, and Chacha N. Mero, National Institute for Medical Research, Mwanza Research Centre, Mwanza, Tanzania, E-mails: mashauri@hotmail.com, kinunghi_csm@hotmail.com, gmkaatano@yahoo.com, kishamawe@yahoo.com, jrmwanga@yahoo.co.uk, soseremi@yahoo.com, and meroncn@yahoo.com. Stephen M. Magesa, Research Triangle International, Malaria Initiative, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mail: smagesa@hotmail.com. Robert C. Malima, National Institute for Medical Research, Amani Research Centre, Tanzania, E-mail: r_malima@hotmail.com. Leonard E. G. Mboera, National Institute for Medical Research, Headquarters, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, E-mail: lmboera@nimr.or.tz.

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