Hepatitis B, C, and D and HIV Infections among Immigrants from Equatorial Guinea Living in Spain

Pablo Rivas Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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María D. Herrero Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Eva Poveda Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Antonio Madejón Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Ana Treviño Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Maite Gutiérrez Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Concepción Ladrón de Guevara Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Mar Lago Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Carmen de Mendoza Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Vincent Soriano Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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Sabino Puente Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Unidad de Medicina Tropical, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Laboratorio de Biología Molecular, Servicio de Enfermedades Infecciosas, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain; Unidad de Hepatología, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área Temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain; Servicio de Microbiología, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain

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A total of 1,220 subjects from Equatorial Guinea living in Spain (median age = 41 years; 453 male and 767 female) was examined for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis B (HBV), C (HCV), and D (HDV) viruses. Extracted RNA and DNA from the positive samples were used to quantify viral load. The prevalence of HIV antibodies, HCV RNA, and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was 10.8% (N = 132), 11.6% (N = 141), and 7.9% (N = 96), respectively. The most prevalent HIV variant was CRF02_AG (38.5%; N = 40). HCV genotype 4 (60%; N = 36) and HBV genotype A3 (32%; N = 8) were the hepatitis variants most frequently found. Superinfection with HDV was seen in 20.9% (N = 24) of HBsAg carriers. A control group of 276 immigrants from other sub-Saharan countries showed similar rates of HIV and HBsAg, although no HCV cases were found. Immigrants constitute a major source of HIV and hepatitis viruses in Spain; therefore, it is important that control measures are intensified.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Pablo Rivas, C/ Sinesio Delgado 10, Madrid, Spain 28029. E-mail: pablorivasg@hotmail.com

Authors' addresses: Pablo Rivas, Tropical Medicine Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, E-mail: pablorivasg@hotmail.com. María D. Herrero, Concepción Ladrón de Guevara, Mar Lago, and Sabino Puente, Tropical Medicine Unit, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, E-mails: mdolhermen@yahoo.es, cladron.hulp@salud.madrid.org, rorilago@yahoo.es, and sabino.puente@terra.es. Eva Poveda, Ana Treviño, Carmen de Mendoza, and Vincent Soriano, Infectious Diseases Department, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, E-mails: evapoveda@hotmail.com, ana.trevino.rc@gmail.com, cmendoza@terra.es, and vicenc.soriano@gmail.com. Antonio Madejón, Hepatology Unit, Hospital Carlos III, CIBERehd (Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en el Área temática de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas), Madrid, Spain, E-mail: amadejon@gmail.com. Maite Gutiérrez, Microbiology Department, Hospital Carlos III, Madrid, Spain, E-mail: mgutierrez.hciii@salud.madrid.org.

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