Surveillance of Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection in Mosquitoes in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008

Ryusei Kuwata Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Phan Thi Nga Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Nguyen Thi Yen Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Keita Hoshino Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Haruhiko Isawa Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Yukiko Higa Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Nguyen Vet Hoang Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Bui Minh Trang Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Do Phuong Loan Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Tran Vu Phong Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Toshinori Sasaki Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Yoshio Tsuda Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Mutsuo Kobayashi Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Kyoko Sawabe Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Masahiro Takagi Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan; Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam; Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan; National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam

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Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection in mosquitoes was monitored in Vietnam from 2006 to 2008. A total of 15,225 mosquitoes, identified as 26 species in five genera were collected and 12,621 were grouped into 447 pools for examination of JEV infection by assays for cytopathic effects in C6/36 cells and by RT-PCR to detect flavivirus RNA. Three JEV strains were isolated from Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles collected in northern and southern Vietnam and two JEV strains were isolated from Culex vishnui Theobald collected in the highlands of Vietnam. Genetic and phylogenetic analyses, based on complete E gene nucleotide sequences, revealed that the five JEV strains were classified into the genotype I group and six amino acid differences were found in these five strains. These results indicated that multiple JEV genotype I populations are circulating countrywide in Vietnam, transmitted by bites of their Cx. tritaeniorhynchus and Cx. vishnui.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Kyoko Sawabe, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan. E-mail: sawabe@nih.go.jp
† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: This work was partially supported by grant-in-aids awarded by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (H21-Shinko-Ippan-005), JSPS KAKENHI Grant (no. 21406012) and by Japan initiative for global Research network on infectious diseases (J-grid) (Program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (2005–2009).

Authors' addresses: Ryusei Kuwata, Keita Hoshino, Haruhiko Isawa, Toshinori Sasaki, Yoshio Tsuda, Mutsuo Kobayashi, and Kyoko Sawabe, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan, E-mails: ryusei@nih.go.jp, khoshino@nih.go.jp, hisawa@nih.go.jp, tsasaki@nih.go.jp, tsudayso@nih.go.jp, mutsuo@nih.go.jp, and sawabe@nih.go.jp. Phan Thi Nga, Department for Training and Research Management, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mail: pnga_arboviruses@yahoo.com. Nguyen Thi Yen and Tran Vu Phong, Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mails: yenanihe@yahoo.com and tranvuphong@yahoo.com. Yukiko Higa and Masahiro Takagi, Department of Medical Entomology and Zoology Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan, E-mails: yukko@nagasaki-u.ac.jp and mstakagi@nagasaki-u.ac.jp. Nguyen Vet Hoang, Bui Minh Trang, and Do Phuong Loan, Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mails: hoangyhn2000@gmail.com, trangminhbui3007@gmail.com, and loankobe@yahoo.com.

Reprint requests: Kyoko Sawabe, Department of Medical Entomology, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1-23-1 Toyama, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8640, Japan, Tel: 81-3-5285-1111, Fax: 81-3-5285-1178, E-mail: sawabe@nih.go.jp.

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