Mobile Phone Microscopy for the Diagnosis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections: A Proof-of-Concept Study

Isaac I. Bogoch Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Jason R. Andrews Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Benjamin Speich Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Jürg Utzinger Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Shaali M. Ame Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Said M. Ali Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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Jennifer Keiser Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada; Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; Public Health Laboratory (Pemba), Ivo de Carneri, Chake Chake, Tanzania

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We created a mobile phone microscope and assessed its accuracy for the diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths compared with conventional microscopy. Mobile phone microscopy has a sensitivity of 69.4% for detecting any helminth egg and sensitivities of 81.0%, 54.4%, and 14.3% for the diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm respectively.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Isaac I. Bogoch, Toronto General Hospital, 14EN-209, 200 Elizabeth Street, Toronto, ON, Canada M5G 2C4. E-mail: isaac.bogoch@uhn.ca

Financial support: This work was supported by The Medicor Foundation. J.K. is financially supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF; projects PPOOA-114941 and PPOOP3_135170).

Authors' addresses: Isaac I. Bogoch, Divisions of Internal Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, E-mail: isaac.bogoch@uhn.ca. Jason R. Andrews, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, E-mail: jandrews6@partners.org. Benjamin Speich, Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, E-mail: benjamin.speich@unibas.ch. Jürg Utzinger, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, E-mail: juerg.utzinger@unibas.ch. Shaali M. Ame and Said M. Ali, Public Health Laboratory, Ivo de Carneri, Pemba Island, Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, E-mails: shaaliame@yahoo.com and saidmali2003@yahoo.com. Jennifer Keiser, Department of Medical Parasitology and Infection Biology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland, and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, E-mail: jennifer.keiser@unibas.ch.

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