Johnson HN, 1967. Ecological implications of antigenically related mammalian viruses for which arthropod vectors are unknown and avian-associated soft tick viruses. Jpn J Med Sci Biol 20: 160–166.
Karabatsos N, 1984. International Catalogue of Arboviruses Including Certain Other Viruses of Vertebrates. Third edition. San Antonio, TX: American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 691–692.
Zarnke RL, Yuill TM, 1985. Modoc-like virus isolated from wild deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). J Wildl Dis 21: 94–99.
Fairbrother A, Yuill TM, 1987. Experimental infection and horizontal transmission of Modoc virus in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus). J Wildl Dis 23: 179–185.
Davis JW, Hardy JL, Reeves WC, 1974. Modoc viral infections in the deer mouse Peromyscus maniculatus. Infect Immun 10: 1362–1369.
Davis JW, Hardy JL, 1974. Characterization of persistent Modoc viral infections in Syrian hamsters. Infect Immun 10: 328–334.
Tesh RB, Siirin M, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Wu X, Duan T, Lei H, Nunes MR, Xiao SY, 2005. Persistent West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster: studies on its mechanism and possible implications for other flavivirus infections. J Infect Dis 192: 287–295.
Siirin MT, Duan T, Lei H, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Watts DM, Xiao SY, Tesh RB, 2007. Chronic St. Louis encephalitis virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 299–306.
Ravi V, Desai AS, Shenoy PK, Satishchandra P, Chandramuki A, Gourie-Devi M, 1993. Persistence of Japanese encephalitis virus in the human nervous system. J Med Virol 40: 326–329.
Appler KK, Brown AN, Stewart BS, Behr MJ, Demarest VL, Wong SJ, Bernard KA, 2010. Persistence of West Nile virus in the central nervous system and periphery of mice. PLoS ONE 5: e10649.
Murray K, Walker C, Herrington E, Lewis JA, McCormick J, Beasley DW, Tesh RB, Fisher-Hoch S, 2010. Persistent infection with West Nile virus years after initial infection. J Infect Dis 201: 2–4.
Xiao SY, Guzman H, Zhang H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Tesh RB, 2001. West Nile virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus): a model of West Nile encephalitis. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 714–721.
Leyssen P, Croes R, Rau P, Helland S, Verbeken E, Sciot R, Paeshuyse J, Charlier N, De Clercq E, Meyding-Lamade U, Neyts J, 2003. Acute encephalitis, a poliomyelitis-like syndrome and neurological sequelae in a hamster model for flavivirus infections. Brain Pathol 13: 279–290.
Kuno G, 2001. Persistence of arboviruses and antiviral antibodies in vertebrate hosts: its occurrence and impacts. Rev Med Virol 11: 165–190.
Mathur A, Khanna N, Kulshreshtha R, Maitra SC, Chaturvedi UC, 1995. Viruria during acute Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Int J Exp Pathol 76: 103–109.
Henriques DF, Quaresma JA, Fuzii HT, Nunes MR, Silva EV, Carvalho VL, Martins LC, Casseb SM, Chiang JO, Vasconcelos PF, 2012. Persistence of experimental Rocio virus infection in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 107: 630–636.
Pogodina VV, Frolova MP, Malenko GV, Fokina GI, Levina LS, Mamonenko LL, Koreshkova GV, Ralf NM, 1981. Persistence of tick-borne encephalitis virus in monkeys. 1. Features of experimental infection. Acta Virol 25: 337–343.
Price WH, 1966. Chronic disease and virus persistence in mice inoculated with Kyasanur forest disease virus. Virology 29: 679–681.
Kharitonova NN, Leonov YA, 1985. Omsk hemorrhagic fever: ecology of the agent and epizootiology [in Russian]. New Delhi: Amerind, 1–230.
Constantine DG, Woodall DF, 1964. Latent infection of Rio Bravo virus in salivary glands of bats. Public Health Rep 79: 1033–1039.
Leyssen P, Van Lommel A, Drosten C, Schmitz H, De Clercq E, Neyts J, 2001. A novel model for the study of the therapy of flavivirus infections using the Modoc virus. Virology 279: 27–37.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||364||160||2|
The long-term persistence of Modoc virus (MODV) infection was investigated in a hamster model. Golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) were infected by subcutaneous inoculation with MODV, in which fatal encephalitis developed in 12.5% (2 of 16). Surviving hamsters shed infectious MODV in their urine during the first five months after infection, and infectious MODV was recovered by co-cultivation of kidney tissue up to eight months after infection. There were no histopathologic changes observed in the kidneys despite detection of viral antigen for 250 days after infection. Mild inflammation and neuronal degeneration in the central nervous system were the primary lesions observed during early infection. These findings confirm previous reports of persistent flavivirus infection in animals and suggest a mechanism for the maintenance of MODV in nature.
Financial support: This study was supported in part by National Institutes of Health contracts N01 AI25489 and N01 AI30027 to Robert B. Tesh. A. Paige Adams was supported by the James W. McLaughlin fellowship fund.
Authors' addresses: A. Paige Adams, Amelia P. A. Travassos da Rosa, and Robert B. Tesh, Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Marcio R. Nunes, Instituto Evandro Chagas/SVS/MS, Levilândia, Belém, Pará, Brazil, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Shu-Yuan Xiao, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, E-mail: Shu-Yuan.Xiao@uchospitals.edu.