A Community-Wide Study of Malaria Reduction: Evaluating Efficacy and User-Acceptance of a Low-Cost Repellent in Northern Ghana

Samuel Dadzie Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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Daniel Boakye Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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Victor Asoala Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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Kwadwo Koram Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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Anthony Kiszewski Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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Maxwell Appawu Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Legon, Accra, Ghana; Navrongo Health Research Centre, Navrongo, Ghana; Natural and Applied Sciences, Bentley University, Waltham, Massachusetts

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NO MAS (NM) mosquito repellent was evaluated in two farming villages (4 km apart) in the Kassena Nankana district of northern Ghana. We determined its efficacy against local malaria vectors, degree of user acceptance, and its effect on malaria prevalence in households using insecticide-treated bed nets. The average protective efficacy of NM against Anopheles mosquitoes over 9 hours was 89.6%. Controls averaged 86 bites/person/night versus 9 bites/person/night with the use of NM. Use of repellent was associated with a decrease of absolute malaria prevalence by 19.2% in the repellent village and by 6.5% in the control village (45.5 to 26.3, and 29.5 to 23.0, respectively). The user-acceptance rate of NM repellent was 96.1%. Ten percent (10%) of repellent users reported irritation as the main adverse effect during the period. Eighty-five percent (85%) of the users found the odor of NM appealing and 87% reported no inconvenience in applying the repellent daily.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Samuel Dadzie, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Box LG 581, Accra. E-mail: sdadzie@noguchi.mimcom.org

Financial support: This study received financial support from the Del Cielo Project, British Columbia, Canada.

Disclosure: A U.S. patent for the repellent mentioned in this manuscript was awarded to S.T. Darling in 2010. The research that appears here was partly funded by him. All co-authors of this paper gave their services freely to this effort and, therefore, retained their independence from the funder.

Authors' addresses: Samuel Dadzie, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Accra, Ghana, E-mail: sdadzie@noguchi.mimcom.org. Daniel Boakye and Maxwell Appawu, Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Parasitology, Accra, Ghana, E-mails: dboakye@noguchi.mimcom.org and mappawu@noguchi.mimcom.org. Victor Asoala, Navrongo Health Research Centre, Health, Navrongo, Ghana, E-mail: vasoala@navrongo.mimcom.org. Kwadwo Koram, Noguchi Memorial Institute of Medical Research, Epidemiology, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, E-mail: kkoram@noguchi.mimcom.org. Anthony Kiszewski, Bentley College, Natural and Applied Sciences, Waltham, MA, E-mail: akiszewski@bentley.edu.

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