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Renal Tuberculosis in the Modern Era

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  • Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil; Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The disease remains as an important public health problem in developing countries. Extrapulmonary TB became more common with the advent of infection with human immunodeficiency virus and by the increase in the number of organ transplantation, which also leads to immunosuppression of thousand of persons. Urogenital TB represents 27% of extrapulmonary cases. Renal involvement in TB can be part of a disseminated infection or a localized genitourinary disease. Renal involvement by TB infection is underdiagnosed in most health care centers. Most patients with renal TB have sterile pyuria, which can be accompanied by microscopic hematuria. The diagnosis of urinary tract TB is based on the finding of pyuria in the absence of common bacterial infection. The first choice drugs include isoniazide, rifampicin, pirazinamide, ethambutol, and streptomycin. Awareness of renal TB is urgently needed by physicians for suspecting this disease in patients with unexplained urinary tract abnormalities, mainly in those with any immunosuppression and those coming from TB-endemic areas.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Rua Vicente Linhares 1198, CEP 60135-270, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. E-mail: ef.daher@uol.com.br

Authors' addresses: Elizabeth De Francesco Daher, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, E-mail: ef.daher@uol.com.br. Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior, Department of Internal Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, and School of Medicine, Health Sciences Center, University of Fortaleza, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil, E-mail: geraldobezerrajr@yahoo.com.br. Elvino José Guardão Barros, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, E-mail: elvino.barros@gmail.com.

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