White NJ, 1996. The treatment of malaria. N Engl J Med 335: 800–806.
Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Doli R, 2010. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett's Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th edition.
The Malaria Working Party of the General Haematology Task Force of the British Committee for Standards Haematology, 1997. The laboratory diagnosis of malaria. Clin Lab Haematol 19: 165–170.
Moody A, 2002. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria parasites. Clin Microbiol Rev 15: 66–78.
Coleman RE, Sattabongkot J, Promstaporm S, Maneechai N, Tippayachai B, Kengluecha A, Rachapaew N, Zollner G, Miller RS, Vaughan JA, Thimasarn K, Khuntirat B, 2006. Comparison of PCR and microscopy for the detection of asymptomatic malaria in a Plasmodium falciparum/vivax endemic area in Thailand. Malar J 5: 121.
Durrheim DN, Becker PJ, Billinghurst K, 1997. Diagnostic disagreement: the lessons learnt from malaria diagnosis in Mpumalanga. S Afr Med J 87: 1016.
World Health Organization WH, 2010. World Malaria Report 2010. Available at: http://wwwwhoint/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241564106/en/indexhtml.
Murray CK, Gasser RA Jr, Magill AJ, Miller RS, 2008. Update on rapid diagnostic testing for malaria. Clin Microbiol Rev 21: 97–110.
Stauffer WM, Cartwright CP, Olson DA, Juni BA, Taylor CM, Bowers SH, Hanson KL, Rosenblatt JE, Boulware DR, 2009. Diagnostic performance of rapid diagnostic tests versus blood smears for malaria in US clinical practice. Clin Infect Dis 49: 908–913.
Beaudoin RL, Aikawa M, 1968. Primaquine-induced changes in morphology of exoerythrocytic stages of malaria. Science 160: 1233–1234.
Jiang JB, Jacobs G, Liang DS, Aikawa M, 1985. Qinghaosu-induced changes in the morphology of Plasmodium inui. Am J Trop Med Hyg 34: 424–428.
Miller RS, McDaniel P, Wongsrichanalai C, 2001. Following the course of malaria treatment by detecting parasite lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. Br J Haematol 113: 558–559.
Bell DR, Wilson DW, Martin LB, 2005. False-positive results of a Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic test due to high sensitivity in a community with fluctuating low parasite density. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 199–203.
Gasser RA Jr, Ruebush MA, Miller TK, Sirichaisinthop RS, Forney J Jr, Bautista CT, Rhorer J, Wittes J, Wongsrichanalai C, 2005. Malaria diagnosis: performance of a NOW® ICT malaria in a large scale field trial. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 54th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC.
Farcas GA, Zhong KJ, Lovegrove FE, Graham CM, Kain KC, 2003. Evaluation of the Binax NOW ICT test versus polymerase chain reaction and microscopy for the detection of malaria in returned travelers. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 589–592.
De Monbrison F, Gerome P, Chaulet JF, Wallon M, Picot S, Peyron F, 2004. Comparative diagnostic performance of two commercial rapid tests for malaria in a non-endemic area. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23: 784–786.
Miller R, 2006. Comparison of performance characteristics of the Binax NOW Malaria test using venous and fingerstick samples. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 55th Annual Meeting, Atlanta, GA. Abstract 553.
Kain KC, Tennyson S, Keystone JS, 1998. Imported malaria: prospective analysis of problems in diagnosis and management. Clin Infect Dis 27: 142–149.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||287||98||0|
Exclusion of malaria traditionally requires three negative serial thick and thin blood films. However, many clinical laboratories now routinely perform rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) in addition to blood films when malaria is suspected. We sought to determine whether serial testing is necessary in this setting. We examined 388 cases of malaria diagnosed during 1999–2010 at three laboratories in Melbourne, Australia. For each case, we ascertained whether the diagnosis was made on initial or follow-up testing. Nine cases (3.5%) were diagnosed after a negative initial blood film and RDT: 7 Plasmodium vivax, 1 P. ovale, and 1 P. falciparum. Of four case-patients with P. vivax in which clinical data were available, all had recent exposure to antimalarial medication. Our data suggest that among patients who have not received recent anti-malarial therapy, and when RDTs are performed and blood films are prepared, most malaria diagnoses are made by using the first set of tests.
Authors' addresses: Janet M. Pasricha, Parkville, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, E-mail: email@example.com. Surender Juneja, Joseph Manitta, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, and Damon P. Eisen, Diagnostic Haematology Department, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Susan Whitehead, Diagnostic Haematology Department, The Alfred, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Ellen Maxwell and Wai-Keong Goh, Diagnostic Haematology Department, Melbourne Pathology, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.