Detection of Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Immunoglobulin M Antibodies at 3–4 Years Following Yellow Fever Vaccination

Katherine B. Gibney Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Srilatha Edupuganti Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Amanda J. Panella Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Olga I. Kosoy Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Mark J. Delorey Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Robert S. Lanciotti Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Mark J. Mulligan Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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Marc Fischer Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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J. Erin Staples Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemic Intelligence Service Program, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia

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The duration of anti-yellow fever (YF) virus immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies following YF vaccination is unknown, making it difficult to interpret positive IgM antibody results in previously vaccinated travelers. We evaluated the frequency and predictors of YF IgM antibody positivity 3–4 years following YF vaccination. Twenty-nine (73%) of 40 participants had YF IgM antibodies 3–4 years postvaccination. No demographic or exposure variables were predictive of YF IgM positivity. However, persons who were YF IgM positive at 3–4 years postvaccination had earlier onset viremia and higher neutralizing antibody geometric mean titers at 1 month and 3–4 years postvaccination compared with persons who were YF IgM negative. Detection of YF IgM antibodies several years postvaccination might reflect remote YF vaccination rather than recent YF vaccination or YF virus infection.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to J. Erin Staples, Division of Vector-Borne Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 3156 Rampart Road, Fort Collins, CO 80521. E-mail: estaples@cdc.gov
† These authors contributed equally to this work.

Financial support: Personnel at the Hope Clinic were partially funded through the Georgia Research Alliance.

Authors' addresses: Katherine Gibney, Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, Victoria, Australia, E-mail: Katherine.Gibney@monash.edu. Srilatha Edupuganti and Mark J. Mulligan, Decatur, GA, E-mails: edupug@emory.edu and mark.mulligan@emory.edu. Amanda J. Panella, Olga I. Kosoy, Mark J. Delorey, Robert S. Lanciotti, Marc Fischer, and J. Erin Staples, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: apanella@cdc.gov, okosoy@cdc.gov, mdelorey@cdc.gov, rslanciotti@cdc.gov, mfischer@cdc.gov, and estaples@cdc.gov.

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