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Genetic Population Structure of Cercariae from an Urban Foci of Schistosoma mansoni, Brazil

Samaly S. SouzaGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Lúcio M. BarbosaGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Isabel C. GuimarãesGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Walter A. BlankGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Renato Barbosa ReisGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Mitermayer G. ReisGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Ronald E. BlantonGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Zilton A. AndradeGonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio

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Rapid urbanization in Brazil has meant that many persons from rural areas where Schistosoma mansoni is endemic have migrated to cities. Discovery of a focus of active transmission in the city of Salvador prompted a citywide survey for active and potential transmission sites. Cercariae shed from infected snails collected from four locations were used to determine how these samples were related and if they were representative of the parasite population infecting humans. Each cercarial collection was greatly differentiated from the others, and diversity was significantly lower when compared with eggs from natural human infections in one site. Egg samples collected 7 years apart in one neighborhood showed little differentiation (Jost's D = 0.01–0.03). Given the clonal nature of parasite reproduction in the snail host and the short-term acquisition of parasites, cercariae from collections at one time point are unlikely to be representative of the diversity in the human population.

Author Notes

* Address correspondence to Ronald E. Blanton, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Wolstein Research Building, 2301 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106. E-mail: reb6@case.edu

Financial support: This study was supported by National Institutes of Health grant R01 AI069195. Lúcio M. Barbosa and Samaly S. Souza and were supported by the Brazilian Federal Agency for the Support and Evaluation of Graduate Education and the Council for Scientific and Technological Development.

Authors' addresses: Samaly S. Souza, Lúcio M. Barbosa, Renato Barbosa Reis, Mitermayer G. Reis, and Zilton A. Andrade, Gonçalo Moniz Gonçalo Moniz Research Centre, Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mails: samalysouza@hotmail.com, lmacedo@aluno.bahia.fiocruz.br, georeis@gmail.com, miter@bahia.fiocruz.br, and zilton@cpqgm.fiocruz.br. Isabel C. Guimarães, Center for Control of Zoonoses, Municipal Secretariat of Health, Alto do Trobogy, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: belcguimaraes@gmail.com. Walter A. Blank and Ronald E. Blanton, Center for Global Health and Diseases, Case Western Reserve University, Biomedical Research Building, Cleveland, OH, E-mails: wab25@case.edu and reb6@case.edu.

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