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Hainan Province is the main area threatened by malaria in China. However, the epidemiologic patterns of malaria in this region are not yet defined. In this study, we determined the spatio-temporal distribution and variation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in Hainan during 1995–2008 by using wavelet and cluster quantitative approaches. The results indicated a decreasing secular trend and obvious seasonal fluctuation of malaria in Hainan. In addition, the characteristic annual peak of malaria could not be detected after 2005. The southcentral region of Hainan has remained an area of relatively high malaria risk, but the incidence of P. falciparum malaria increased significantly in the southeast and southwest regions during 2002–2008. These findings identify epidemic patterns of malaria in Hainan, and are applicable for designing an effective and dynamic public health campaign to combat malaria in this region.
Financial support: This study was supported by National Special Grant for Prevention and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, China (2008ZX10004-012) and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in University (PCSIRT).
Authors' addresses: Dan Xiao, Yong Long, Kejian Wu, Dezhong Xu, Haitao Li, and Yongping Yan, No. 169, Changle West Road, Xi'an, Shannxi, China, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Shanqing Wang and Guangze Wang, 44 Haifu Road, Haikou, China, E-mails: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org.