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Cynomolgus monkeys are a useful model for human tuberculosis, but susceptibility to M. leprae is unknown. A cynomolgus model of leprosy could increase understanding of pathogenesis—importantly, neuritis and nerve-damaging reactions. We administered viable Mycobacterium leprae to 24 cynomolgus monkeys by three routes, with a median follow-up period of 6 years (range = 1–19 years) involving biopsies, nasal smears, antiphenolic glycolipid-1 (PGL-1) antibody serology, and lepromin skin testing. Most developed evanescent papules at intradermal M. leprae inoculation sites that, on biopsy, showed a robust cellular immune response akin to a lepromin skin test reaction; many produced PGL-1 antibodies. At necropsy, four monkeys, without cutaneous or gross neurological signs of leprosy but with elevated PGL-1 antibodies, including three with nasal smears (+) for acid fast bacilli (AFB), showed histological features, including AFB, suggestive of leprosy at several sites. Overall, however, cynomolgus monkeys seem minimally susceptible to leprosy after experimental M. leprae administration.
Authors' addresses: Gerald P. Walsh, Eduardo C. Dela Cruz, Rodolfo M. Abalos, Esterlina V. Tan, Tranquilino T. Fajardo, Laarni G. Villahermosa, Roland V. Cellona, Maria V. Balagon, and Paul R. Saunderson, Leonard Wood Memorial, Center for Leprosy Research, Cebu, Philippines, E-mail: email@example.com. Valerie A. White, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Vancouver General Hospital, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Douglas S. Walsh, Department of Immunology and Medicine, United States Army Medical Component, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: email@example.com.