We thank the refugee program volunteers in Largo and Tobanda Refugee Camps and all the Sierra Leonean research and support personnel. Additional thanks goes to the WHO/UNHCR Country offices in Freetown for their administrative and logistical support during planning of the evaluation. We thank the NGOs MERLIN (Largo Camp) and Medecins Sans Frontieres (Tobanda Camp) for collaboration and the Ministry of Health/National Malaria Control Programme in Freetown for their continuous support. We extend gratitude to Pierre Guillet for preliminary program design, John Haskew for assistance on clinical monitoring, and to Rohit Chitale for input on data management and Margaret Kweku for input on statistical analysis. We are grateful to Marcel Dicke who reviewed the manuscript.
Curtis CF, Mnzava AE, Misra S, Rowland M, 1999. Malaria control: bednets or spraying? Summary of the presentations and the discussion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 460.
Rowland M, 1999. Malaria control: bednets or spraying? Malaria control in the Afghan refugee camps of western Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 93: 458–459.
Rowland M, Nosten F, 2001. Malaria epidemiology and control in refugee camps and complex emergencies. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 95: 741–754.
Burns M, 2005. Evaluating insecticide-treated polyethylene sheeting for malaria control in complex emergencies: an intersectoral approach. Humanitarian Exchange 31: 14–16.
Allan R, Burns M, Frandsen MV, 2003. Cash and crisis: motivating the private and public sector to establish common goals. International Aid and Trade Review June: 90–91.
Graham K, Mohammad N, Rehman H, Nazari A, Ahmad M, Kamal M, Skovmand O, Guillet P, Allan R, Zaim M, Yates A, Lines J, Rowland M, 2002. Insecticide-treated plastic tarpaulins for control of malaria vectors in refugee camps. Med Vet Entomol 16: 404–408.
Diabate A, Chandre F, Rowland M, N'guessan R, Duchon S, Dabire KR, Hougard JM, 2006. The indoor use of plastic sheeting pre-impregnated with insecticide for control of malaria vectors. Trop Med Int Health 11: 597–603.
Djènontin A, Chabi J, Baldet T, Irish S, Pennetier C, Hougard JM, Corbel V, Akogbéto M, Chandre F, 2009. Managing insecticide resistance in malaria vectors by combining carbamate-treated plastic wall sheeting and pyrethroid-treated bed nets. Malar J 8: 233.
Barnish G, Maude GH, Bockarie MJ, Eggelte TA, Greenwood BM, Ceesay S, 1993. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. I. Initial results. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87: 125–136.
Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Touré YT, 1995. Vectorial capacity and entomological inoculation rates of Anopheles gambiae in a high rainfall forested area of southern Sierra Leone. Trop Med Parasitol 46: 164–171.
Barnish G, Maude GH, Bockarie MJ, Erunkulu OA, Dumbuya MS, Greenwood BM, 1993. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. II. Parasitological and related results from pre- and post-rains clinical surveys. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 87: 137–148.
Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Touré YT, Traoré S, Barnish G, Greenwood BM, 1993. The ecology and behavior of the forest form of Anopheles gambiae s.s. Parassitologia 35 (Suppl): 5–8.
Bockarie MJ, Service MW, Barnish G, Maude GH, Greenwood BM, 1994. Malaria in a rural area of Sierra Leone. III. Vector ecology and disease transmission. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 88: 251–262.
Hogh B, Marbiah NT, Petersen E, Perlmann H, Dolopaye E, Hanson AP, Bjorkman A, Perlmann P, 1991. A longitudinal study of seroreactivities to Plasmodium falciparum antigens in infants and children living in a holoendemic area of Liberia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 44: 191–200.
Rogier C, Trape JF, 1993. Malaria attacks in children exposed to high transmission: who is protected? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 87: 245–246.
Hewitt S, Rowland M, 1999. Control of zoophilic malaria vectors by applying pyrethroid insecticides to cattle. Trop Med Int Health 4: 481–486.
Quiñones ML, Drakeley CJ, Müller O, Lines JD, Haywood M, Greenwood BM, 2000. Diversion of Anopheles gambiae from children to other hosts following exposure to permethrin-treated bednets. Med Vet Entomol 14: 369–375.
Saul A, 2003. Zooprophylaxis or zoopotentiation: the outcome of introducing animals on vector transmission is highly dependent on the mosquito mortality while searching. Malar J 2: 32.
Baird JK, Owusu Agyei S, Utz GC, Koram K, Barcus MJ, Jones TR, Fryauff DJ, Binka FN, Hoffman SL, Nkrumah FN, 2002. Seasonal malaria attack rates in infants and young children in northern Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 280–286.
Borrmann S, Adegnika AA, Missinou MA, Binder RK, Issifou S, Schindler A, Matsiegui PB, Kun JF, Krishna S, Lell B, Kremsner PG, 2003. Short-course artesunate treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Gabon. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47: 901–904.
Henry MC, Assi SB, Rogier C, Dossou-Yovo J, Chandre F, Guillet P, Carnevale P, 2005. Protective efficacy of lambda-cyhalothrin treated nets in Anopheles gambiae pyrethroid resistance areas of Côte d'Ivoire. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 859–864.
Mathanga DP, Campbell CH, Taylor TE, Barlow R, Wilson ML, 2006. Socially marketed insecticide-treated nets effectively reduce Plasmodium infection and anemia among children in urban Malawi. Trop Med Int Health 11: 1367–1374.
Lindsay SW, Jawara M, Paine K, Pinder M, Walraven GE, Emerson PM, 2003. Changes in house design reduce exposure to malaria mosquitoes. Trop Med Int Health 8: 512–517.