• 1.

    Alvar J, Cañavate C, Molina R, Moreno J, Nieto J, 2004. Canine leishmaniasis. Adv Parasitol 57: 188.

  • 2.

    Desjeux P, 2001. The increase in risk factors for leishmaniasis worldwide. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 95: 239243.

  • 3.

    Romero GA, Boelaert M, 2010. Control of visceral leishmaniasis in Latin America—a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 4: e584.

  • 4.

    Ferrer L, Aisa M, Roura X, Portús M, 1995. Serological diagnosis and treatment of canine leishmaniasis. Vet Rec 136: 514516.

  • 5.

    Vásquez-Trujillo A, 2006. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in registration of canines present in peri-urban areas of Villavicencio, Meta and their importance in the public health. Rev Orinoquia 10: 7986.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Reithinger R, Canales Espinoza J, Llanos-Cuentas A, Davies CR, 2003. Domestic dog ownership: a risk factor for human infection with Leishmania (Viannia) species. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 141145.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Reithinger R, Espinoza JC, Davies CR, 2003. The transmission dynamics of canine American cutaneous leishmaniasis in Huánuco, Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 69: 473480.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Serra CMB, Leal CA, Figueiredo F, Schubach TM, Duarte R, Uchôa CMA et al., 2003. Canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Morada das Águias (Serra da Tiririca), Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cad Saúde Pública 19: 18771880.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Padilla AM, Marco JD, Diosque P, Segura MA, Mora MC, Fernandez MM, Malchiodi EL, Basombrio MA, 2002. Canine infection and the possible role of dogs in the transmission of American tegumentary leishmaniasis in Salta, Argentina. Vet Parasitol 110: 110.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Reithinger R, Davies CR, 1999. Is the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) a reservoir host of American cutaneous leishmaniasis? a critical review of the current evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 530541.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Barbosa Santos EG, Marzochi MC, Conceicao NF, Brito CM, Pacheco RS, 1998. Epidemiological survey on canine population with the use of immunoleish skin test in endemic areas of human American cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 40: 4143.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sherlock IA, Maia H, Dias-Lima AG, 1996. Preliminary results of a project about the ecology of Phlebotomus vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Bahia. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 29: 207214.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Nunes MP, Jackson JM, Carvalho RW, Furtado NJ, Coutinho SG, 1991. Serological survey for canine cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in areas at risk for transmission in Rio de Janeiro where prophylactic measures had been adopted. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 86: 411417.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Aguilar CM, Rangel EF, Garcia L, Fernandez E, Momen H, Grimaldi Filho G, De Vargas Z, 1990. Zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis associated with domestic animals in Venezuela and Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 84: 1928.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Sierra D, Ochoa M, Calle JI, García G, Colorado D, Vélez ID, 2006. Leishmania (Leishmania) mexicana in the village of San Matias, municipality of Gomez Plata, North West of Antioquia, Colombia. Biomedica 26: 232235.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Agudelo LA, Uribe J, Sierra D, Ruiz F, Vélez ID, 2002. Presence of American cutaneous leishmaniasis vectors surrounding the city of Medellín, Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 641642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Bejarano E, Uribe S, Rojas W, Vélez ID, 2002. Phlebotominae sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with the appearance of urban leishmaniasis in the city of Sincelejo, Colombia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 645647.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Vélez ID, Hendrickx E, Román O, Agudelo S, 1997. Gender and leishmaniasis in Colombia: a redefinition of existing concepts. Geneva: Special Program for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases. Gender and Tropical Diseases Paper No. 3.

  • 19.

    Vélez ID, Travi BL, Gallego JI, Palma GI, Agudelo S, Montoya J, Jaramillo C, Llano R, 1995. Ecoepidemiological delimitation of visceral leishmaniasis in the Caribbean Colombian coast. Bol Dir Malariol Saneam Ambient 35: 359370.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Velez ID, Gilchrist K, Martinez S, Ramírez-Pineda JR, Ashman JA, Alves FP, Coler RN, Bogatzki LY, Kahn SJ, Beckmann AM, Cowgill KD, Reed SG, Piazza FM, 2009. Safety and immunogenicity of a defined vaccine for the prevention of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Vaccine 28: 329337.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Velez ID, Robledo S (eds), 2010. Manual for Diagnosis and Control of Leishmaniasis in Central America. Medellín-Colombia.

  • 22.

    McMahon-Pratt D, Bennett E, David JR, 1982. Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish subspecies of Leishmania braziliensis. J Immunol 129: 926927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Pirmez C, Marzochi MC, Coutinho SG, 1988. Experimental canine mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania braziliensis brazilienses). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 83: 145151.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Travi BL, Tabares CJ, Cadena H, 2006. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection in two Colombian dogs: a note on infectivity for sand flies and response to treatment. Biomedica 26: 249253.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Vásquez-Trujillo A, González AE, Góngora A, Cabrera O, Santamaría E, Buitrago LS, 2008. Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis identification in canines from rural locality in the Villavicencio municipallity, Meta-Colombia. Rev Orinoquia 12: 173181.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Dantas-Torres F, 2007. The role of dogs as reservoirs of Leishmania parasites, with emphasis on Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. Vet Parasitol 149: 139146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Ashford DA, David JR, Freire M, David R, Sherlock I, Eulálio MC, Sampaio DP, Badaro R, 1998. Studies on the control of visceral leishmaniasis: impact of dog control on canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Jacobina, Bahía, Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 5357.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Gramiccia M, Gradoni L, 2005. The current status of zoonotic leishmaniasis and approaches to disease control. Int Parasitol 35: 11691180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Maroli M, Mizzoni V, Siragusa C, D'Orazi A, Gradoni L, 2001. Evidence for an impact on the incidence of canine leishmaniasis by the mass use of deltamethrin-impregnated dog collars in southern Italy. Med Vet Entomol 15: 358363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Aoun K, Chouihi E, Boufaden I, Mahmoud R, Bouratbine A, Bedoui K, 2008. Efficacy of deltamethrin-impregnated collars Scalibor in the prevention of canine leishmaniasis in the area of Tuni. Arch Inst Pasteur Tunis 85: 6368.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

An Epidemic Outbreak of Canine Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Colombia Caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis

View More View Less
  • Program for Study and Control of Tropical Disease – PECET, School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia; School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia; Health Office at the Army, Republic of Colombia

The largest recorded outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Colombia's history occurred during 2005–2009 in soldiers of the Colombian Army, with ∼40,000 cases. This outbreak was caused by the influx of military personnel into the jungle with the mission of combat illicit crops and the guerrilla. The soldiers remain for long periods within the rainforest and are exposed to the bite of infected sand flies. During the military activities, soldiers work with dogs specially trained to detect landmines, and therefore, dogs are also exposed to the infected sand flies and show high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). This work describes an epidemic outbreak of canine CL caused by Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania panamensis in Colombia, South America. The clinical features of the disease and the response to treatment with pentavalent antimonials observed in 72 guard dogs from the Colombian Army are described. A program for prevention and control of canine CL is also discussed.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Iván D. Vélez, Program for Study and Control of Tropical Disease – PECET, School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Carrera 53 No. 61-30, Lab 632, Medellín, Colombia. E-mail: id_velez@yahoo.com

Financial support: This work received financial support from Ministry of Defense of Colombia.

Authors' addresses: Iván D. Vélez, Liliana López, and Sara M. Robledo, Program for Study and Control of Tropical Disease – PECET, School of Medicine, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, E-mails: id_velez@yahoo.com, lililop14@yahoo.com, and sara_robledo@yahoo.com. Lina M. Carrillo, Program for Study and Control of Tropical Disease – PECET, School of Agrarian Sciences, University of Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia, E-mail: linacarrillo@gmail.com. Erwin Rodríguez, Health Office at the Army, Republic of Colombia, E-mail: erroga@yahoo.com.

Save