Anthrax Outbreaks in Bangladesh, 2009–2010

Apurba Chakraborty Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Salah Uddin Khan Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Mohammed Abul Hasnat Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Shahana Parveen Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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M. Saiful Islam Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Andrea Mikolon Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Ranjit Kumar Chakraborty Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Be-Nazir Ahmed Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Khorsed Ara Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Najmul Haider Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Sherif R. Zaki Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Alex R. Hoffmaster Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Mahmudur Rahman Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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Stephen P. Luby Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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M. Jahangir Hossain Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia

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During August 2009–October 2010, a multidisciplinary team investigated 14 outbreaks of animal and human anthrax in Bangladesh to identify the etiology, pathway of transmission, and social, behavioral, and cultural factors that led to these outbreaks. The team identified 140 animal cases of anthrax and 273 human cases of cutaneous anthrax. Ninety one percent of persons in whom cutaneous anthrax developed had history of butchering sick animals, handling raw meat, contact with animal skin, or were present at slaughtering sites. Each year, Bacillus anthracis of identical genotypes were isolated from animal and human cases. Inadequate livestock vaccination coverage, lack of awareness of the risk of anthrax transmission from animal to humans, social norms and poverty contributed to these outbreaks. Addressing these challenges and adopting a joint animal and human health approach could contribute to detecting and preventing such outbreaks in the future.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Apurba Chakraborty, Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh. E-mail: achakraborty@icddrb.org

Financial support: This study was supported by CDC and the Government of Bangladesh. The International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh acknowledges with gratitude the commitment of the Government of Bangladesh and CDC to research efforts of the Centre.

Authors' addresses: Apurba Chakraborty, Salah Uddin Khan, Mohammed Abul Hasnat, Shahana Parveen, M. Saiful Islam, Andrea Mikolon, Najmul Haider, Stephen P. Luby, and M. Jahangir Hossain, Centre for Communicable Diseases, International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, 68, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmed Sarani, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh, E-mails: achakraborty@icddrb.org, khansu@icddrb.org, hasnatvet1@gmail.com, shahana@icddrb.org, saiful@icddrb.org, amikolon@icddrb.org, nazmulh@icddrb.org, sluby@icddrb.org, and jhossain@icddrb.org. Ranjit Kumar Chakraborty, Department of Livestock Services, Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail: chakraborty.ranjit@yahoo.com. Be-Nazir Ahmed, Khorsed Ara, and Mahmudur Rahman, Institute of Epidemiology Disease Control and Research, Mohakhali, Dhaka 1212, Bangladesh, E-mails: benazir1959@gmail.com, khorsedara1957@yahoo.com, and mrahman@citechco.net. Sherif R. Zaki and Alex R. Hoffmaster, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: sxz1@cdc.gov and amh9@cdc.gov.

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