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Determinants of Anopheles Seasonal Distribution Patterns Across a Forest to Periurban Gradient near Iquitos, Peru

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  • Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Maryland; US Naval Medical Research Unit 6, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, District of Columbia

As part of a field ecology study of arbovirus and malaria activity in the Amazon Basin, Loreto Department, Peru, we collected mosquitoes landing on humans at a forest site and inside and outside of residences and military barracks at periurban, rural, and village sites. We collected 11 Anopheles spp. from these four sites. An. darlingi, the principal malaria vector in the region, accounted for 98.7% of all Anopheles spp. collected at Puerto Almendra. Peaks in landing activity occurred during the December and April collection periods. However, the percent of sporozoite-positive Anopheles spp. was highest 1–2 months later, when landing activity decreased to approximately 10% of the peak activity periods. At all sites, peak landing activity occurred about 2 hours after sunset. These data provide a better understanding of the taxonomy, population density, and seasonal and habitat distribution of potential malaria vectors within the Amazon Basin region.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Michael J. Turell, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St., Fort Detrick, MD 21702-5011. E-mail: michael.turell@amedd.army.mil

Financial support: This study was supported in part by Work Unit Number 62787A 870 U 8517 of the US Navy.

Authors' addresses: Drew D. Reinbold-Wasson, Michael R. Sardelis, James W. Jones, Terry A. Klein, and Michael J. Turell, Virology Division, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mails: Drew.reinbold@us.army.mil, msardelis@ncmi.detrick.army.mil, mosquitohombre@hotmail.com, Terry.klein@us.army.mil, and michael.turell@amedd.army.mil. Douglas M. Watts, Roberto Fernandez, and Faustino Carbajal, US Naval Medical Research Unit 6, Lima, Peru, E-mails: dowatts@utmb.edu, Roberto.Fernandez@med.navy.mil, and faustinoce@hotmail.com. James E. Pecor, Department of Entomology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, DC, E-mail: PECORJ@si.edu. Carlos Calampa, Director de la Región de Salud de Loreto, Ministry of Health, Iquitos, Peru, E-mail: ccalampa@hotmail.com.

Reprint requests: Michael J. Turell, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, 1425 Porter St., Fort Detrick, MD 21702-5011, E-mail: michael.turell@amedd.army.mil.

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