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    Collins WE, Sullivan JS, Jeffery GM, Williams A, Galland GG, Nace D, Williams T, Barnwell JW, 2009. The Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax in humans and different species of Aotus monkeys. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 152159.

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    Earle WC, Perez M, 1932. Enumeration of parasites in the blood of malarial patients. J Lab Clin Med 17: 11241130.

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    Collins WE, Jeffery GM, 1999. A retrospective examination of sporozoite- and trophozoite-induced infections with Plasmodium falciparum. Am J Trop Med Hyg (Suppl): 448.

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    Ward RA, Rutledge LC, Hickman RL, 1969. Cyclical transmission of Chesson strain malaria to subhuman primates. Nature 224: 11261127.

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    Schmidt LH, 1978. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) I. The course of untreated infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 671702.

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    Schmidt LH, 1978. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) II. Responses to chloroquine, quinine, and pryrimethamine. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 703717.

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    Schmidt LH, 1978. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus) III. Methods employed in the search for new blood schizonticidal drugs. Am J Trop Med Hyg 27: 718737.

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    Collins WE, McClure HM, Swenson RB, Mehaffey PC, Skinner JC, 1986. Infection of mosquitoes with Plasmodium vivax from chimpanzees using membrane feeding. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 5660.

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    Collins WE, Warren McW, Contacos PG, Skinner JC, Richardson BB, Kearse TS, 1980. The Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax in Aotus monkeys and anopheline mosquitoes. J Parasitol 66: 488497.

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    Collins WE, Skinner JC, Broderson JR, Mehaffey P, Sutton BB, 1985. Infection of Aotus azarae boliviensis monkeys with different strains of Plasmodium vivax. J Parasitol 71: 239243.

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  • 11.

    Collins WE, Warren McW, Huong AY, Skinner JC, Sutton BB, Stanfill PS, 1986. Studies on the comparative infectivity of fifteen strains of Plasmodium vivax to laboratory-reared anophelines, with special reference to Anopheles cuclicifacies. J Parasitol 72: 521524.

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  • 12.

    Krotoski WA, Garnham PC, Cogswell FB, Collins WE, Bray RS, Gwadz RW, Killick-Kendrick R, Wolf R, Sinden R, Hollingdale M, Lowrie RC Jr, Koontz LC, Stanfill PS, 1986. Observations on early and late post-sporozoite tissue stages in primate malaria. IV. Pre-erythrocytic schizonts and/or hypnozoites of Chesson and North Korean strains of Plasmodium vivax in the chimpanzee. Am J Trop Med Hyg 35: 263274.

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    Collins WE, Skinner JC, Pappaioanou M, Broderson JR, McClure HM, Strobert E, Sutton BB, Stanfill PS, Filipski V, Campbell CC, 1987. Chesson strain Plasmodium vivax in Saimiri sciureus boliviensis monkeys. J Parasitol 73: 929934.

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  • 14.

    Collins WE, Skinner JC, Pappaioanou M, Ma NF-S, Broderson JR, Sutton BB, Stanfill PS, 1987. Infection of Aotus vociferans (karyotype V) monkeys with different strains of Plasmodium vivax. J Parasitol 73: 536540.

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  • 15.

    Collins WE, Skinner JC, Pappaioanou M, Broderson JR, Ma NS-F, Filipski V, Stanfill PS, Rogers L, 1988. Infection of Peruvian Aotus nancymai monkeys with different strains of Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, and P. malariae. J Parasitol 74: 392398.

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Mosquito Infection Studies with Aotus Monkeys and Humans Infected with the Chesson Strain of Plasmodiun vivax

William E. CollinsDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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JoAnn S. SullivanDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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Geoffrey M. JefferyDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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Douglas NaceDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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Tyrone WilliamsDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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G. Gale GallandDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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Allison WilliamsDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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John W. BarnwellDivision of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health and Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, Georgia

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Oocyst counts were compared between mosquitoes that fed on humans versus mosquitoes that fed on Aotus monkeys, both of which were infected with the Chesson strain of Plasmodium vivax. Oocyst counts obtained from mosquitoes fed on humans were almost 10-fold higher in number. Mosquitoes were more likely to be infected and with a higher rate of infection when they fed on monkeys before the peak in the asexual parasite count. Mosquitoes that fed on humans were more likely to be more heavily infected when fed after the peak in the asexual count. Of several species of owl monkeys, Aotus vociferans was infected at a higher frequency. On the basis of oocyst counts, Anopheles dirus were the most susceptible and An. maculatus were the least susceptible of the mosquito species tested.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to William E. Collins, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Highway, Chamblee, GA 30341. E-mail: wec1@cdc.gov

Authors' addresses: William E. Collins, JoAnn S. Sullivan, Douglas Nace, and John W. Barnwell, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: wec1@cdc.gov, JSSO@cdc.gov, DDN4@cdc.gov, and WZB3@cdc.gov. Geoffrey M. Jeffery, Decatur, GA, E-mail: GJefferey2@comcast.net. Tyrone Williams, Atlanta Research and Education Foundation, Decatur, GA, E-mail: TDW1@cdc.gov. G. Gale Galland, Division of Global Migration and Quarantine, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: GGGO@cdc.gov. Allison Williams, Animal Resources Branch, National Center for Preparedness, Detection and Control of Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: ZHN7@cdc.gov.

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