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Factors Associated with Resistance to Schistosoma mansoni Infection in an Endemic Area of Bahia, Brazil

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  • Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York; Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York; Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
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Detailed knowledge of factors associated with resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in endemic areas might facilitate more effective schistosomiasis control. We conducted a cross-sectional study of persons resistant to schistosomiasis and found no association between socioeconomic status and resistance to infection. Mononuclear cells of resistant subjects produced higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5), IL-13 and interferon-γ upon stimulation with soluble egg antigen (SEA) compared with infected persons. When stimulated with Sm21.6 or Sm22.6, levels of IL-10 were higher in cell culture of resistant persons. Levels of IgE against soluble adult worm antigen (SWAP) and against interleukin-4–inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs (IPSE) and levels of IgG4 against SWAP, SEA, and Sm22.6 were lower in the resistant group compared with the susceptible group. Our data suggest that socioeconomic status could not fully explain resistance to S. mansoni infection observed in the studied area. However, a mixture of Th1 and Th2 immune responses and low levels of specific IgG4 against parasite antigens could be mediating resistance to infection.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Ricardo R. Oliveira, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Professor Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Rua João das Botas s/n, Canela, Salvador, BA 40110-160, Brazil. E-mail: ricardoriccio@gmail.com

Financial support: This study was supported by the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq) Universal (482064/2010-2). Ricardo R. Oliveira and Marshall J. Glesby were supported in part by the Fogarty/Ellison International Clinical Research Scholars Program and National Institutes of Health/National Institutes of Allergy and Infectious Diseases grant K24Al078884, respectively. Kathleen C. Barnes was supported in part by the Mary Beryl Patch Turnbull Scholar Program. Maria Ilma Araújo and Edgar M. Carvalho are investigators supported by CNPq.

Authors’ addresses: Ricardo R. Oliveira, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT/CNPq), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: ricardoriccio@gmail.com. Joanemile P. Figueiredo, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: milepf@yahoo.com.br. Luciana S. Cardoso, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Departamento de Ciências da Vida, Universidade do Estado da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT/CNPq), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: luciana.imuno@gmail.com. Rafael L. Jabar and Robson P. Souza, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mails: rafajabar@hotmail.com and robson.imuno@gmail.com. Martin T. Wells, Department of Biological Statistics and Computational Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, E-mail: martin.t.wells@gmail.com. Edgar M. Carvalho, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT/CNPq), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: edgar@ufba.br. Daniel W. Fitzgerald, Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, E-mail: dfitzgerald@gheskio.org. Kathleen C. Barnes, Division of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: kbarnes5@jhmi.edu. Maria Ilma Araújo, Serviço de Imunologia, Hospital Universitário Prof Edgard Santos, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Escola Bahiana de Medicina e Saúde Pública, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil; Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia de Doenças Tropicais (INCT-DT/CNPq), Salvador, Bahia, Brazil, E-mail: mia@ufba.br. Marshall J. Glesby, Center for Global Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, E-mail: mag2005@med.cornell.ed.

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