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Cryptosporidium is a major cause of diarrhea in children in developing countries. However, there is no vaccine available and little is known about immune responses to protective antigens. We investigated antibody responses to p23, a putative vaccine candidate, in children in Bangladesh with cryptosporidiosis and diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls), and p23 gene polymorphisms in infecting species. Serum IgM, IgG, and IgA responses to p23 were significantly greater in cases than controls after three weeks of follow-up. Cases with acute diarrhea had significantly greater serum IgA and IgM responses than those with persistent diarrhea, which suggested an association with protection from prolonged disease. The p23 sequences were relatively conserved among infecting species and subtype families. Although most children were infected with Cryptosporidium hominis, there was a cross-reactive antibody response to C. parvum antigen. These results support further development of p23 as a vaccine candidate.
Financial support: This study was supported by an opportunity pool grant and in part by grants UO1 AI45508, U01 AI058935, and RO1 AI52786 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH) and K24 AT003683 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH. Anoli J. Borad was supported by T32 AI007438, and Geneve M. Allison was supported by T32 AI07389 from NIAID, NIH.
Authors' addresses: Anoli J. Borad, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Geneve M. Allison, Anne V. Kane, Joy Moy, and Honorine D. Ward, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. David Wang, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tufts University School of Engineering, Medford, MA, E-mail: email@example.com. Sabeena Ahmed, Mohammad M. Karim, and Wasif A. Khan, Clinical Sciences Division, Centre for Health and Population Research, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Patricia L. Hibberd, Division of Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, E-mail: email@example.com. Sitara Swarna Rao Ajjampur and Gagandeep Kang, Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Stephen B. Calderwood and Edward T. Ryan, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Elena Naumova, Tufts Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Diseases, Tufts University School of Engineering, Medford, MA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.