Brabin BJ, Rogerson SJ, 2001. The epidemiology and outcomes of maternal malaria. Duffy PE, Fried M, eds. Malaria in Pregnancy: Deadly Parasite, Susceptible Host. London: Taylor & Francis, 27–52.
Desai M, ter Kuile FO, Nosten F, McGready R, Asamoa K, Brabin B, Newman RD, 2007. Epidemiology and burden of malaria in pregnancy. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 93–104.
Fried M, Duffy PE, 1996. Adherence of Plasmodium falciparum to chondroitin sulfate A in the human placenta. Science 272: 1502–1504.
Fried M, Nosten F, Brockman A, Brabin BJ, Duffy PE, 1998. Maternal antibodies block malaria. Nature 395: 851–852.
Mockenhaupt FP, Rong B, Till H, Eggelte TA, Beck S, Gyasi-Sarpong C, Thompson WN, Bienzle U, 2000. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum infections in pregnancy in Ghana. Trop Med Int Health 5: 167–173.
Brabin B, 2004. The sick placenta: the role of malaria. Placenta 25: 359–378.
Greenwood B, Alonso P, ter Kuile FO, Hill J, Steketee RW, 2007. Malaria in pregnancy: priorities for research. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 169–174.
Mockenhaupt FP, Bedu-Addo G, von Gaertner C, Boye R, Fricke K, Hannibal I, Karakaya F, Schaller M, Ulmen U, Acquah PA, Dietz E, Eggelte TA, Bienzle U, 2006. Detection and clinical manifestation of placental malaria in southern Ghana. Malar J 5: 119.
Mayor A, Serra-Casas E, Bardaji A, Sanz S, Puyol L, Cistero P, Sigauque B, Mandomando I, Aponte JJ, Alonso PL, Menendez C, 2009. Sub-microscopic infections and long-term recrudescence of Plasmodium falciparum in Mozambican pregnant women. Malar J 8: 9.
Mockenhaupt FP, Ulmen U, von Gaertner C, Bedu-Addo G, Bienzle U, 2002. Diagnosis of placental malaria. J Clin Microbiol 40: 306–308.
Singer LM, Newman RD, Diarra A, Moran AC, Huber CS, Stennies G, Sirima SB, Konate A, Yameogo M, Sawadogo R, Barnwell JW, Parise ME, 2004. Evaluation of a malaria rapid diagnostic test for assessing the burden of malaria during pregnancy. Am J Trop Med Hyg 70: 481–485.
Piola P, Nabasumba C, Turyakira E, Dhorda M, Lindegardh N, Nyehangane D, Snounou G, Ashley E, McGready R, Nosten F, Guerin PJ, 2010. Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine compared with quinine in pregnant women with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet Infect Dis 10: 762–769.
World Health Organization, 2003. Assessment and Monitoring of Antimalarial Drug Efficacy for the Treatment of Uncomplicated falciparum Malaria. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Snounou G, Viriyakosol S, Zhu XP, Jarra W, Pinheiro L, do Rosario VE, Thaithong S, Brown KN, 1993. High sensitivity of detection of human malaria parasites by the use of nested polymerase chain reaction. Mol Biochem Parasitol 61: 315–320.
Snounou G, Singh B, 2002. Nested polymerase chain reaction analysis of Plasmodium Parasites. Doolan D, ed. Methods in Molecular Medicine, Malaria Methods and Protocols. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press, 189–203.
Bell DR, Wilson DW, Martin LB, 2005. False-positive results of a Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2-detecting malaria rapid diagnostic test due to high sensitivity in a community with fluctuating low parasite density. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 199–203.
World Health Organization, 2009. Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test Performance: Results of WHO Product Testing of Malaria RDTs: Round 1 (2008). Geneva: World Health Organization.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||399||160||0|
Improved laboratory diagnosis is critical to reduce the burden of malaria in pregnancy. Peripheral blood smears appear less sensitive than Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2–based rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for placental malaria infections in studies conducted at delivery. In this study, 81 women in Uganda in the second or third trimester of pregnancy were followed-up until delivery. At each visit, peripheral blood was tested by blood smear, RDT, and nested species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensitivity and specificity of the tests was calculated with PCR, which detected 22 infections of P. falciparum, as the gold standard. The sensitivity and specificity of blood smears were 36.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 18.0–59.2%) and 99.6% (95% CI = 97.7–100%), respectively. The corresponding values for RDT were 31.8% (95% CI = 14.7–54.9%) and 100% (95% CI = 98.3–100%). The RDTs could replace blood smears for diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy by virtue of their relative ease of use. Field-based sensitive tests for malaria in pregnancy are urgently needed.
Financial support: This study was sponsored by Médecins Sans Frontières and received additional financial support from the European Commission and the AEDES Foundation.
Authors' addresses: Mehul Dhorda, 11th Floor, Chamlong Harinasuta Building, Ratchathewi, Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: email@example.com. Patrice Piola and Philippe J. Guerin, Centre for Tropical Medicine, University of Oxford, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford, United Kingdom, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Dan Nyehangane, Benon Tumwebaze, Aisha Nalusaji, Carolyn Nabasumba, and Eleanor Turyakira, Epicentre Mbarara, Mbarara, Uganda, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Rose McGready, Shoklo Malaria Research Unit, Mae Sot Tak, Thailand, E-mail: Email: email@example.com. Elizabeth Ashley, Epicentre, Paris, France, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Georges Snounou, Unité Mixte de Recherche 945, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale, Paris, France and Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Faculté de Médecine Pitié-Salpêtriére, 91 Boulevard de l'Hôpital, Paris, France, E-mail: email@example.com.