• 1.

    Das T, Jaffar-Bandjee MC, Hoarau JJ, Krejbich Trotot P, Denizot M, Lee-Pat-Yuen G, Sahoo R, Guiraud P, Ramful D, Robin S, Alessandri JL, Gauzere BA, Gasque P, 2010. Chikungunya fever: CNS infection and pathologies of a re-emerging arbovirus. Prog Neurobiol 91: 121129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Sudeep AB, Parashar D, 2008. Chikungunya: an overview. J Biosci 33: 443449.

  • 3.

    Chandak NH, Kashyap RS, Kabra D, Karandikar P, Saha SS, Morey SH, Purohit HJ, Taori GM, Daginawala HF, 2009. Neurological complications of chikungunya virus infection. Neurol India 57: 177180.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Pialoux G, Gauzere BA, Jaureguiberry S, Strobel M, 2007. Chikungunya: an epidemic arbovirosis. Lancet Infect Dis 7: 319327.

  • 5.

    Vazeille M, Moutailler S, Coudrier D, Rousseaux C, Khun H, Huerre M, Thiria J, Dehecq JS, Fontenille D, Schuffenecker I, Despres P, Failloux AB, 2007. Two Chikungunya isolates from the outbreak of La Reunion (Indian Ocean) exhibit different patterns of infection in the mosquito, Aedes albopictus. PLoS ONE 2: e1168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Bangs MJ, Pudiantari R, Gionar YR, 2007. Persistence of dengue virus RNA in dried Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to natural tropical conditions. J Med Entomol 44: 163167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Rosen L, Gubler D, 1974. The use of mosquitoes to detect and propagate dengue viruses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 23: 11531160.

  • 8.

    Dhanda V, Ilkal MA, 1985. Mosquito inoculation and immunofluorescence technique for studies on dengue virus. Indian J Med Res 58: 179180.

  • 9.

    Yergolkar PN, Tandale BV, Arankalle VA, Sathe PS, Sudeep AB, Gandhe SS, Gokhale MD, Jacob GP, Hundekar SL, Mishra AC, 2006. Chikungunya outbreaks caused by African genotype, India. Emerg Infect Dis 12: 15801583.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bangs MJ, Tan R, Listiyanigsih E, Kay BH, Porter KR, 2001. Detection of dengue viral RNA in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) exposed to sticky lures using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. J Med Entomol 38: 720724.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kramer LD, Chiles RE, Thuy DD, Fallah HM, 2001. Detection of St. Louis encephalitis and western equine encephalitis RNA in mosquitoes tested without maintenance of a cold chain. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 17: 213215.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Turell MJ, Spring AR, Miller MK, Cannon CE, 2002. Effect of holding conditions on the detection of West Nile viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction from mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) pools. J Med Entomol 39: 13.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Johansen CA, Hall RA, van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Mackenzie JS, 2002. Detection and stability of Japanese encephalitis virus RNA and virus viability in dead infected mosquitoes under different storage condition. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 656661.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Guzman HX, Ding S, Xiao Y, Tesh RB, 2005. Duration of infectivity and RNA of Venezuelan equine encephalitis, West Nile, and yellow fever viruses dried on filter paper and maintained at room temperature. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 474477.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Arankalle VA, Shrivastava S, Cherian S, Gunjikar RS, Walimbe AM, Jadhav SM, Sudeep AB, Mishra AC, 2007. Genetic divergence of Chikungunya viruses in India (1963–2006) with special reference to the 2005–2006 explosive epidemic. J Gen Virol 88: 19671976.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Rao Ramachandra T, Sharda Devi P, Singh KR, 1968. Experimental studies on the mechanical transmission of Chikungunya virus by Aedes aegypti. Mosq News 28: 406408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persistence of Viral RNA in Chikungunya Virus-Infected Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) Mosquitoes after Prolonged Storage at 28°C

Experiments were conducted to determine the persistence of chikungunya viral (CHIKV) RNA in experimentally infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes stored for prolonged periods at 28°C. Intra-thoracically inoculated mosquitoes with confirmed positivity were killed by quick freezing at -80°C, applied to sticky tape, and stored at 28°C with 80 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). At weekly intervals, five mosquitoes were removed from the tape randomly and assayed individually for detection of viral RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). CHIKV RNA was detected up to 12 weeks in dry mosquitoes by RT-PCR. Virus could not be isolated either in cell culture or in the suckling Swiss-albino mouse system at any stage. This study demonstrated the persistence of CHIKV viral RNA up to 12 weeks when stored at 28°C with RH 80 ± 5%. This finding will have significance in CHIKV surveillance programs in mosquito populations or field-based studies in countries where maintenance of a cold chain is a concern.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Anakkathil Sudeep, National Institute of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Dr Ambedkar Road, PUNE–411001, India. E-mails: sudeepmcc@yahoo.co.in or sudeepab@icmr.org.in

Authors' addresses: Mangala Mavale, Anakkathil Sudeep, Mangesh Gokhale, Supriya Hundekar, Deepti Parashar, Youwaraj Ghodke, Vidya Arankalle, and Akhilesh Chandra Mishra, National Institute of Virology, Indian Council of Medical Research, Pune, India, E-mails: sudeepmcc@yahoo.co.in; sudeepab@icmr.org.in, mavale.ms@niv.co.in, gokhale40@gmail.com, hundekar.sl@niv.co.in, Ghodke.ys@niv.co.in, Varankalle@yahoo.com and acm1750@rediffmail.com.

Save