Current Knowledge of Leishmania Vectors in Mexico: How Geographic Distributions of Species Relate to Transmission Areas

Camila González Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Ingeborg Becker-Fauser Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Enrique Martínez-Meyer Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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A. Townsend Peterson Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Víctor Sánchez-Cordero Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, and Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León, Mexico; Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico; Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Mexico City, Mexico; Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas

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Leishmaniases are a group of vector-borne diseases with different clinical manifestations caused by parasites transmitted by sand fly vectors. In Mexico, the sand fly Lutzomyia olmeca olmeca is the only vector proven to transmit the parasite Leishmania mexicana to humans, which causes leishmaniasis. Other vector species with potential medical importance have been obtained, but their geographic distributions and relation to transmission areas have never been assessed. We modeled the ecological niches of nine sand fly species and projected niches to estimate potential distributions by using known occurrences, environmental coverages, and the algorithms GARP and Maxent. All vector species were distributed in areas with known recurrent transmission, except for Lu. diabolica, which appeared to be related only to areas of occasional transmission in northern Mexico. The distribution of Lu. o. olmeca does not overlap with all reported cutaneous leishmaniasis cases, suggesting that Lu. cruciata and Lu. shannoni are likely also involved as primary vectors in those areas. Our study provides useful information of potential risk areas of leishmaniasis transmission in Mexico.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Instituto de Biología, Departamento de Zoología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Edificio Nuevo, Módulo C, Apartado, Postal 70–153, Mexico City DF 04510, Mexico. E-mail: victor@ibiologia.unam.mx

Financial support: This study was partially supported by Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología Programa de (Project 80156) and the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (Investigación e Innovación Tecnológica project IN225408 to Víctor Sánchez-Cordero). Camila González was a recipient of a Dirección General de Estudios de Posgrado fellowship for the Posgrado en Ciencias Biomédicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

Authors' addresses: Camila González, Centro de Ciencias de la Complejidad (C3), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Torre de Ingeniería, Ciudad Universitaria, Mexico City 04510 DF, Mexico and Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Edificio Nuevo, Módulo C, Apartdo, Postal 70-153, Mexico City DF 04510, Mexico, E-mail: c.gonzalez2592@uniades.edu.co. Eduardo A. Rebollar-Téllez, Laboratorio de Entomología Médica, Departamento de Zoología de Invertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Universidad s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, Apartado, Postal 109-F, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León C.P. 66451, Mexico, E-mail: eduardo.rebollart1@uanl.edu.mx. Sergio Ibáñez-Bernal, Instituto de Ecología, AC Red Ambiente y Sustentabilidad, Carretera Antigua a Coatepec No. 351, El Haya, Xalapa, 91070, Veracruz, México, E-mail: sergio.ibanez@inecol.edu.mx. Ingeborg Becker-Fauser, Laboratorio de Inmunoparasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Hospital General de México, Dr. Balmis 148, Mexico City 06726 DF, Mexico, E-mail: becker@servidor.unam.mx. Enrique Martínez-Meyer and Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Departamento de Zoología, Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, Edificio Nuevo, Módulo C, Apartado, Postal 70-153, México City DF 04510, Mexico, E-mails: emm@ibiologia.unam.mx and victor@ibiologia.unam.mx. A. Townsend Peterson, Biodiversity Institute, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS, E-mail: town@ku.edu.

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