Dillingham RA, Lima AA, Guerrant RL, 2002. Cryptosporidiosis: epidemiology and impact. Microbes Infect 4: 1059–1066.
Collinet-Adler S, Ward HD, 2010. Cryptosporidiosis: environmental, therapeutic, and preventive challenges. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29: 927–935.
Leav BA, Mackay M, Ward HD, 2003. Cryptosporidium species: new insights and old challenges. Clin Infect Dis 36: 903–908.
Tzipori S, Ward H, 2002. Cryptosporidiosis: biology, pathogenesis and disease. Microbes Infect 4: 1047–1058.
Checkley W, Epstein LD, Gilman RH, Black RE, Cabrera L, Sterling CR, 1998. Effects of Cryptosporidium parvum infection in Peruvian children: growth faltering and subsequent catch-up growth. Am J Epidemiol 148: 497–506.
Guerrant DI, Moore SR, Lima AA, Patrick PD, Schorling JB, Guerrant RL, 1999. Association of early childhood diarrhea and cryptosporidiosis with impaired physical fitness and cognitive function four-seven years later in a poor urban community in northeast Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 61: 707–713.
Molbak K, Andersen M, Aaby P, Hojlyng N, Jakobsen M, Sodemann M, da Silva AP, 1997. Cryptosporidium infection in infancy as a cause of malnutrition: a community study from Guinea-Bissau, west Africa. Am J Clin Nutr 65: 149–152.
Abubakar I, Aliyu SH, Arumugam C, Hunter PR, Usman NK, 2007. Prevention and treatment of cryptosporidiosis in immunocompromised patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004932.
de Graaf DC, Spano F, Petry F, Sagodira S, Bonnin A, 1999. Speculation on whether a vaccine against cryptosporidiosis is a reality or fantasy. Int J Parasitol 29: 1289–1306.
Wanyiri J, Ward H, 2006. Molecular basis of cryptosporidium-host cell interactions: recent advances and future prospects. Future Microbiol 1: 201–208.
Borad A, Ward H, 2010. Human immune responses in cryptosporidiosis. Future Microbiol 5: 507–519.
Riggs MW, 2002. Recent advances in cryptosporidiosis: the immune response. Microbes Infect 4: 1067–1080.
Xiao L, 2010. Molecular epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis: an update. Exp Parasitol 124: 80–89.
Khan WA, Rogers KA, Karim MM, Ahmed S, Hibberd PL, Calderwood SB, Ryan ET, Ward HD, 2004. Cryptosporidiosis among Bangladeshi children with diarrhea: a prospective, matched, case-control study of clinical features, epidemiology and systemic antibody responses. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 412–419.
Hira KG, Mackay MR, Hempstead AD, Ahmed S, Karim MM, O'Connor RM, Hibberd PL, Calderwood SB, Ryan ET, Khan WA, Ward HD, 2011. Genetic diversity of Cryptosporidium spp. from Bangladeshi children. J Clin Microbiol Apr 6 [Epub ahead of print].
Moss DM, Bennett SN, Arrowood MJ, Hurd MR, Lammie PJ, Wahlquist SP, Addiss DG, 1994. Kinetic and isotypic analysis of specific immunoglobulins from crew members with cryptosporidiosis on a U.S. Coast Guard cutter. J Eukaryot Microbiol 41: 52S–55S.
Moss DM, Bennett SN, Arrowood MJ, Wahlquist SP, Lammie PJ, 1998. Enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot analysis of a cryptosporidiosis outbreak on a United States Coast Guard cutter. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 110–118.
Mead JR, Arrowood MJ, Sterling CR, 1988. Antigens of Cryptosporidium sporozoites recognized by immune sera of infected animals and humans. J Parasitol 74: 135–143.
Reperant JM, Naciri M, Chardes T, Bout DT, 1992. Immunological characterization of a 17-kDa antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum recognized early by mucosal IgA antibodies. FEMS Microbiol Lett 78: 7–14.
Reperant JM, Naciri M, Iochmann S, Tilley M, Bout DT, 1994. Major antigens of Cryptosporidium parvum recognised by serum antibodies from different infected animal species and man. Vet Parasitol 55: 1–13.
Priest JW, Bern C, Xiao L, Roberts JM, Kwon JP, Lescano AG, Checkley W, Cabrera L, Moss DM, Arrowood MJ, Sterling CR, Gilman RH, Lammie PJ, 2006. Longitudinal analysis of cryptosporidium species-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses in Peruvian children. Clin Vaccine Immunol 13: 123–131.
Cevallos AM, Zhang X, Waldor MK, Jaison S, Zhou X, Tzipori S, Neutra MR, Ward HD, 2000. Molecular cloning and expression of a gene encoding Cryptosporidium parvum glycoproteins gp40 and gp15. Infect Immun 68: 4108–4116.
Strong WB, Gut J, Nelson RG, 2000. Cloning and sequence analysis of a highly polymorphic Cryptosporidium parvum gene encoding a 60-kilodalton glycoprotein and characterization of its 15- and 45-kilodalton zoite surface antigen products. Infect Immun 68: 4117–4134.
Priest JW, Kwon JP, Arrowood MJ, Lammie PJ, 2000. Cloning of the immunodominant 17-kDa antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum. Mol Biochem Parasitol 106: 261–271.
Winter G, Gooley AA, Williams KL, Slade MB, 2000. Characterization of a major sporozoite surface glycoprotein of Cryptosporidum parvum. Funct Integr Genomics 1: 207–217.
Priest JW, Mehlert A, Moss DM, Arrowood MJ, Ferguson MA, 2006. Characterization of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor of the immunodominant Cryptosporidium parvum 17-kDa antigen. Mol Biochem Parasitol 149: 108–112.
Priest JW, Xie LT, Arrowood MJ, Lammie PJ, 2001. The immunodominant 17-kDa antigen from Cryptosporidium parvum is glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored. Mol Biochem Parasitol 113: 117–126.
Preidis GA, Wang HC, Lewis DE, Castellanos-Gonzalez A, Rogers KA, Graviss EA, Ward HD, White AC Jr, 2007. Seropositive human subjects produce interferon gamma after stimulation with recombinant Cryptosporidium hominis gp15. Am J Trop Med Hyg 77: 583–585.
O'Connor RM, Thorpe CM, Cevallos AM, Ward HD, 2002. Expression of the highly polymorphic Cryptosporidium parvum Cpgp40/15 gene in genotype I and II isolates. Mol Biochem Parasitol 119: 203–215.
Albert MJ, Faruque AS, Faruque SM, Sack RB, Mahalanabis D, 1999. Case-control study of enteropathogens associated with childhood diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh. J Clin Microbiol 37: 3458–3464.
Bhattacharya MK, Teka T, Faruque AS, Fuchs GJ, 1997. Cryptosporidium infection in children in urban Bangladesh. J Trop Pediatr 43: 282–286.
Rahman M, Shahid NS, Rahman H, Sack DA, Rahman N, Hossain S, 1990. Cryptosporidiosis: a cause of diarrhea in Bangladesh. Am J Trop Med Hyg 42: 127–130.
Shahid NS, Rahman AS, Sanyal SC, 1987. Cryptosporidium as a pathogen for diarrhoea in Bangladesh. Trop Geogr Med 39: 265–270.
Haque R, Mondal D, Karim A, Molla IH, Rahim A, Faruque AS, Ahmad N, Kirkpatrick BD, Houpt E, Snider C, Petri WA Jr, 2009. Prospective case-control study of the association between common enteric protozoal parasites and diarrhea in Bangladesh. Clin Infect Dis 48: 1191–1197.
McDonald AC, Mac Kenzie WR, Addiss DG, Gradus MS, Linke G, Zembrowski E, Hurd MR, Arrowood MJ, Lammie PJ, Priest JW, 2001. Cryptosporidium parvum-specific antibody responses among children residing in Milwaukee during the 1993 waterborne outbreak. J Infect Dis 183: 1373–1379.
Frost FJ, Calderon RL, Muller TB, Curry M, Rodman JS, Moss DM, de la Cruz AA, 1998. A two-year follow-up survey of antibody to Cryptosporidium in Jackson County, Oregon following an outbreak of waterborne disease. Epidemiol Infect 121: 213–217.
Frost FJ, Muller T, Craun GF, Fraser D, Thompson D, Notenboom R, Calderon RL, 2000. Serological analysis of a cryptosporidiosis epidemic. Int J Epidemiol 29: 376–379.
Sandhu SK, Priest JW, Lammie PJ, Hubbard A, Colford JM Jr, Eisenberg JN, 2006. The natural history of antibody responses to Cryptosporidium parasites in men at high risk of HIV infection. J Infect Dis 194: 1428–1437.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||691||117||4|
Although Cryptospridium hominis is the dominant Cryptosporidium species infecting humans, immune responses to cognate antigens in C. hominis-infected persons have not been reported. We investigated antibody responses to the immunodominant gp15 antigen from C. hominis and C. parvum, in C. hominis-infected Bangladeshi children less than five years of age with diarrhea (cases) and uninfected children with diarrhea (controls). We also investigated polymorphisms in the C. hominis gp15 sequence from cases. Serum IgG responses to gp15 from both species were significantly greater in cases than controls. In spite of polymorphisms in the gp15 sequence, there was a significant correlation between antibody levels to gp15 from both species, indicating cross-reactivity to conserved epitopes. Cases with acute diarrhea had a significantly greater serum IgA response to gp15 compared with those with persistent diarrhea, suggesting that this response may be associated with protection from prolonged disease. These findings support further investigation of gp15 as a vaccine candidate.
Financial support: This study was supported by an opportunity pool grant and in part by grants UO1 AI45508, U01 AI058935, and RO1 AI52786, all from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health (NIH) and K24 AT003683 from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, NIH. Genève M. Allison and Kathleen Rogers were supported by T32 AI07389, and Anoli Borad was supported by T32 AI007438 from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH.
Authors' addresses: Genève M. Allison, Anne V. Kane, and Honorine D. Ward, Division of Geographic Medicine and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Tufts Medical Center, Boston, MA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, and firstname.lastname@example.org. Kathleen A. Rogers, University of North Carolina Center for AIDS Research, Chapel Hill, NC, E-mail: email@example.com. Anoli Borad, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Sabeena Ahmed, Mohammad Mahbubul Karim, and Wasif A. Khan, Clinical Sciences Division, Centre for Health and Population Research, International Center for Diarrheal Disease Research, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Patricia L. Hibberd, Division of Global Health, Department of Pediatrics, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Elena N. Naumova, Tufts Initiative for the Forecasting and Modeling of Infectious Diseases, Tufts University School of Engineering, Medford, MA, E-mail: email@example.com. Stephen B. Calderwood and Edward T. Ryan, Division of Infectious Diseases, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com.