An Integrated Strategy for Transmission Control of Schistosoma japonicum in a Marshland Area of China: Findings from a Five-Year Longitudinal Survey and Mathematical Modeling

Yi-Biao Zhou Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Song Liang Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Geng-Xin Chen Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Chris Rea Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Zong-Gui He Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Zhi-Jie Zhang Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Jian-Guo Wei Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Gen-Ming Zhao Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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Qing-Wu Jiang Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, China; Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China; College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio; Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China

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In 2004 an aggressive plan was instituted aiming to achieve nationwide transmission control of schistosomiasis by 2015. Here, we report a longitudinal study on the control of schistosomiasis in Anhui province, China. Using a mathematical model, we compared the effects of different control strategies implemented in the study area. During the 5-year study period, a 60.8% reduction in human prevalence was observed from 2005 (7.95%) to 2009 (3.1%), and snail infection decreased from 0.063% in 2005 to zero in 2009. Results of the model agree well with the first 3-year field observations and suggest continuous decrease in human infections in the last 2 years, whereas the last 2-year field observations indicated that human infections appeared to be stable even with continuous control. Our findings showed that the integrated control strategy was effective, and we speculated that other factors besides bovines might contribute to the local transmission of the disease.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Yi-Biao Zhou, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China. E-mails: z_yibiao@hotmail.com or ybzhou@fudan.edu.cn

Financial support: This work received financial support from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 30590374), the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (no. 2006AA02Z402), the National S&T Major Program (grant no. 2008ZX10004-011), and Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (project no. B118). SL is thankful for the support from the Public Health Preparedness for Infectious Disease (PHPID) of the Ohio State University.

Authors' addresses: Yi-Biao Zhou, Zhi-Jie Zhang, Jian-Guo Wei, Gen-Ming Zhao, and Qing-Wu Jiang, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, Shanghai, People's Republic of China, and Key Laboratory of Public Health Safety, Fudan University, Ministry of Education, China, E-mails: z_yibiao@hotmail.com, epistat@gmail.com, jgwei@fudan.edu.cn, gmzhao@shmu.edu.cn, and jiangqw@fudan.edu.cn. Song Liang and Chris Rea, College of Public Health, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, E-mails: ehs.liang@gmail.com and chrislrea@gmail.com. Geng-Xin Chen and Zong-Gui He, Guichi Anti-Schistosomiasis Station, Anhui, China, E-mails: cgx5611@163.com and gcxfz@yahoo.com.cn.

Reprint requests: Yi-biao Zhou, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032, People's Republic of China, E-mail: z_yibiao@hotmail.com.

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