• 1.

    Jordan P, Webbe G, 1969. Human Schistosomiasis. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 105115.

  • 2.

    Clarke VD, 1966. The influence of acquired resistance in the epidemiology of bilharziasis. Cent Afr J Med 12: 130.

  • 3.

    Mostafa MH, Sheweita SA, O'Connor PJ, 1999. Relationship between schistosomiasis and bladder cancer. Clin Microbiol Rev 12: 97111.

  • 4.

    Hotez PJ, Engels D, Fenwick A, Savioli L, 2010. Africa is desperate for praziquantel. Lancet 376: 496498.

  • 5.

    Shiff C, Naples JM, Isharwal S, Bosompem KM, Veltri RW, 2010. Non-invasive methods to detect schistosome-based bladder cancer: is the association sufficient for epidemiological use? Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 104: 35.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Koukounari A, Webster JP, Donnelly CA, Bray BC, Naples J, Bosompem K, Shiff C, 2009. Sensitivities and specificities of diagnostic tests and infection prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium estimated from data on adults in villages northwest of Accra, Ghana. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 435441.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Mharakurwa S, Simoloka C, Thuma PE, Shiff CJ, Sullivan DJ, 2006. PCR detection of Plasmodium falciparum in human urine and saliva samples. Malar J 5: 103.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Pontes LA, Dias-Neto E, Rabello A, 2002. Detection by polymerase chain reaction of Schistosoma mansoni DNA in human serum and feces. Am J Trop Med Hyg 66: 157162.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Hamburger J, Xu YX, Ramzy RM, Jourdane J, Ruppel A, 1998. Development and laboratory evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction for monitoring Schistosoma mansoni infestation of water. Am J Trop Med Hyg 59: 468473.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Obeng BB, Aryeetey YA, de Dood CJ, Amoah AS, Larbi IA, Deelder AM, Yazdanbakhsh M, Hartgers FC, Boakye DA, Verweij JJ, Van Dam GJ, Van Lieshout L, 2008. Application of a circulating-cathodic-antigen (CCA) strip test and real-time PCR, in comparison with microscopy, for the detection of Schistosoma haematobium in urine samples from Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 102: 625633.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kjetland EF, Hove RJ, Gomo E, Midzi N, Gwanzura L, Mason P, Friis H, Verweij JJ, Gundersen SG, Ndhlovu PD, Mduluza T, Van Lieshout L, 2009. Schistosomiasis PCR in vaginal lavage as an indicator of genital Schistosoma haematobium infection in rural Zimbabwean women. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 10501055.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Lier T, Simonsen GS, Wang T, Lu D, Haukland HH, Vennervald BJ, Hegstad J, Johansen MV, 2009. Real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection of low-intensity Schistosoma japonicum infections in China. Am J Trop Med Hyg 81: 428432.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    ten Hove RJ, Verweij JJ, Vereecken K, Polman K, Dieye L, Van Lieshout L, 2008. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium infection in stool samples collected in northern Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102: 179185.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Hamburger J, He N, Abbasi I, Ramzy RM, Jourdane J, Ruppel A, 2001. Polymerase chain reaction assay based on a highly repeated sequence of Schistosoma haematobium: a potential tool for monitoring schistosome-infested water. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 907911.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Weber MD, Blair DM, Clark VV, 1967. The pattern of schistosome egg distribution in a micturition flow. Cent Afr J Med 13: 7588.

Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 523 290 24
PDF Downloads 279 141 15
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

 

 

Diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium by Detection of Specific DNA Fragments from Filtered Urine Samples

View More View Less
  • Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, St. Mary's Campus, Norfolk Place, London, United Kingdom; NTD Control Programme, RISEAL NIGER, Niamey, Niger
Restricted access

Definitive diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium infection in adult patients is a clinically important challenge. Chronically infected adults pass few eggs in the urine, which are often missed when current diagnostic methods are used. In the work presented here, we report on an alternative diagnostic method based on presence of the S. haematobium-specific Dra 1, 121 bp repeat fragment in human urine. A novel method of collecting the urine specimens in the field and filtering them through heavy Whatman No. 3 paper was introduced. After drying, the samples remained viable for several months at room temperature. To test the potential use of this method, 89 urine specimens from school children in Kollo District, Niger, were examined. In all, 52 of 89 (58.4%) were positive for hematuria, 4 of 89 (49.4%) were positive for eggs, and 51 of 89 (57.3%) showed parasite-specific DNA. These were compared with 60 filtered urine specimens obtained from random samples of adults from two study sites in Nigeria, one endemic and one non-endemic for S. haematobium. In the 30 patients from the endemic site, all 10 samples with detectable eggs and 7 of the 20 egg-negative samples were DNA positive. It was concluded that the urine filter paper method was sufficiently sensitive to detect low and cryptic infections, that DNA detection was more sensitive than egg detection, and that the filtration method facilitated specimen collection and transport from the field.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Clive Shiff, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205. E-mail: cshiff@jhsph.edu

Financial support: This research was funded by the Johns Hopkins Center for Global Health.

Authors' addresses: Clive Shiff, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: cshiff@jhsph.edu. Olufunmiola Ibironke, Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, E-mail: oibironk@jhsph.edu. Anna Phillips, Schistosomiasis Control Initiative, Imperial College, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London, W2 1PG, UK, E-mail: a.phillips05@imperial.ac.uk. Amadou Garba, NTD Control Programme, RISEAL NIGER, Niamey, Niger, E-mail: garbamadou@yahoo.fr. Sani Lamine, NTD Control Programme, RISEAL NIGER, Niamey, Niger, E-mail: salamarine_06@yahoo.fr.

Save