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Dexamethasone Effects in the Strongyloides venezuelensis Infection in A Murine Model

Eleuza R. MachadoDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Daniela CarlosDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Carlos A. SorgiDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Simone G. RamosDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Daniela I. SouzaDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Edson G. SoaresDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Julia M. Costa-CruzDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Marlene T. UetaDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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David M. AronoffDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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Lúcia H. FaccioliDepartamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil; Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil; Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil; Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, Michigan

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The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of glucocorticoids on the immune response to Strongyloides venezuelensis in mice. Balb/c mice were infected with S. venezuelensis and treated with Dexamethasone (Dexa) or vehicle. Dexa treatment increased circulating blood neutrophil numbers and inhibited eosinophil and mononuclear cell accumulation in the blood, bronchoalveolar, and peritoneal fluid compared with control animals. Moreover, Dexa decreased tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-12 production in the lungs and circulating immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, and IgE antibody levels while increasing the overall parasite burden in the feces and intestine. Dexa treatment enhanced the fertility of female nematodes relative to untreated and infected mice. In summary, the alterations in the immune response induced by Dexa resulted in a blunted, aberrant immune response associated with increased parasite burden. This phenomenon is similar to that observed in S. stercoralis-infected humans who are taking immunosuppressive or antiinflammatory drugs, including corticosteroids.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Eleuza R. Machado, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Avenida do Café, s/n 14040-903 Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. E-mail: eleuzarodriguesmachado498@gmail.com

Authors' addresses: Eleuza R. Machado, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil and Faculdade Anhanguera de Brasília, Taguatinga, Distrito Federal, Brazil, E-mails: eleuzarodriguesmachado498@gmail.com / eleuzarodriguesmachado51@gmail.com. Daniela Carlos, Carlos A. Sorgi, Daniela I. Souza, and Lúcia H. Faccioli, Departamento de Análises Clínicas, Toxicológicas e Bromatológicas, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: danicar@usp.br, sorgi@fcfrp.usp.br, daniela_i_souza@bd.com, and faccioli@fcfrp.usp.br. Simone G. Ramos and Edson G. Soares, Departamento de Patologia, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mails: sgramos@fmrp.usp.br and egsoares@fmrp.usp.br. Julia M. Costa-Cruz, Departamento de Imunologia, Microbiologia e Parasitologia, Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, E-mail: costacruz@ufu.br. Marlene T. Ueta, Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, E-mail: mtu@unicamp.br. David M. Aronoff, Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI, E-mail: daronoff@med.umich.edu.

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