• 1.

    Nevada Department of Agriculture, 2004. Nevada Department of Agriculture 2004 West Nile Virus (WNV) Report. Reno, NV: Nevada Department of Agriculture.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Nevada Department of Agriculture, 2005. Nevada Department of Agriculture West Nile Virus (WNV) Report–2005. Reno, NV: Nevada Department of Agriculture.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Jiménez-Clavero MA, Tejedor CG, Rojo G, Soriguer R, Figuerola J, 2007. Serosurvey of West Nile virus in equids and bovids in Spain. Vet Rec 161: 212.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Wilkins PA, Glaser AL, McDonnell SM, 2006. Passive transfer of naturally acquired specific immunity against West Nile virus to foals in a semi-feral pony herd. J Vet Intern Med 20: 10451047.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Bureau of Land Management, 2010. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management. National Wild Horse and Burro Program. Available at: http://www.blm.gov/wo/st/en/prog/wild_horse_and_burro/wh_b_information_center/Fact_Sheet.html. Accessed July 22, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    McMullan WC, 1983. Dental criteria for estimating age in the horse. Equine Pract 5: 3643.

  • 7.

    Bunning ML, Bowen RA, Cropp CB, Sullivan KG, Davis BS, Komar N, Godsey MS, Baker D, Hettler DL, Holmes DA, Biggerstaff BJ, Mitchell CJ, 2002. Experimental infection of horses with West Nile virus. Emerg Infect Dis 8: 380386.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Johnson AJ, Martin DA, Karabatsos N, Roehrig JT, 2000. Detection of anti-arboviral immunoglobin G by using a monoclonal antibody-based capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Microbiol 38: 18271831.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons RW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Sixth edition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    U.S. Geological Survey, 2010. U.S. Geological Survey. West Nile Virus Maps Historical. Available at: http://diseasemaps.usgs.gov/2007/wnv_historical.html. Accessed July 22, 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Ostlund EN, Andresen JE, Andresen M, 2000. West Nile encephalitis. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16: 427441.

  • 12.

    Ostlund EN, Crom RL, Pedersen DD, Johnson DJ, Williams WO, Schmitt BJ, 2001. Equine West Nile encephalitis, United States. Emerg Infect Dis 7: 665669.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation

 

 

 

 

Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Feral Horses on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States

View More View Less
  • U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, Wisconsin; U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Lakeview, Oregon

We screened 1,397 feral horses (Equus caballus) on Sheldon National Wildlife Refuge, Nevada, United States, for IgM and IgG against flavivirus during 2004–2006, 2008, and 2009. Positive serum samples were tested for neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV). One animal was positive for antibody against WNV in 2004, but all others tested in 2004–2006 were negative. In 2008 and 2009, we found evidence of increasing seropositive horses with age, whereas seroprevalence of WNV decreased from 19% in 2008 to 7.2% in 2009. No horses were positive for antibody against SLEV. Being unvaccinated, feral horses can be useful for WNV surveillance.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to J. Christian Franson, U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, 6006 Schroeder Road, Madison, WI 53711. E-mail: jfranson@usgs.gov

Authors' addresses: J. Christian Franson, Erik K. Hofmeister, and Robert J. Dusek, U.S. Geological Survey, National Wildlife Health Center, Madison, WI, E-mails: jfranson@usgs.gov, ehofmeister@usgs.gov, and rdusek@usgs.gov. Gail H. Collins, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex, Lakeview, OR, E-mail: gail_collins@fws.gov.

Save