• 1.

    Halstead SB, 2008. Dengue virus—mosquito interactions. Annu Rev Entomol 53: 273291.

  • 2.

    Focks DA, Alexander N, 2006. A Multi-Country Study on the Methodology for Surveys of Aedes Aegypti Pupal Productivity: Findings and Recommendations. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Ponlawat A, Harrington LC, 2005. Blood feeding patterns of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Thailand. J Med Entomol 42: 844849.

  • 4.

    Scott TW, Chow E, Strickman D, Kittayapong P, Wirtz RA, Lorenz LH, Edman JD, 1993. Blood-feeding patterns of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in a rural Thai village. J Med Entomol 30: 922927.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Scott TW, Morrison AC, Lorenz LH, Clark GG, Strickman D, Kittayapong P, Zhou H, Edman JD, 2000. Longitudinal studies of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand and Puerto Rico: population dynamics. J Med Entomol 37: 7788.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Harrington LC, Scott TW, Lerdthusnee K, Coleman RC, Costero A, Clark GG, Jones JJ, Kitthawee S, Kittayapong P, Sithiprasasna R, 2005. Dispersal of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti within and between rural communities. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 209220.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    García-Rejón J, Loroño-Pino MA, Farfán-Ale JA, Flores-Flores L, Rosado-Paredes ED, Rivero-Cardenas N, Najera-Vazquez R, Gomez-Carro S, Lira-Zumbardo V, Gonzalez-Martinez P, Lozano-Fuentes S, Elizondo-Quiroga D, Beaty BJ, Eisen L, 2008. Dengue virus-infected Aedes aegypti in the home environment. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79: 940950.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Clark GG, Seda H, Gubler DJ, 1994. Use of the “CDC backpack aspirator” for surveillance of Aedes aegypti in San Juan, Puerto Rico. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 10: 119124.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Schultz GW, 1993. Seasonal abundance of dengue vectors in Manila, Republic of the Philippines. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 24: 369375.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Tidwell MA, Williams DC, Carvalho Tidwell T, Pena CJ, Gwinn TA, Focks DA, Zaglul A, Mercedes M, 1990. Baseline data on Aedes aegypti populations in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: 514522.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Chow VTK, Chan YC, Yong R, Lee KM, Lim LK, Chung YK, Lam-Phua SG, Tan BT, 1998. Monitoring of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes by a type-specific polymerase chain reaction and cycle sequencing. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 578586.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Chung YK, Pang FY, 2002. Dengue virus infection rate in field populations of female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in Singapore. Trop Med Int Health 7: 322330.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Halstead SB, Scanlon JE, Umpaivit P, Udomsakdi S, 1969. Dengue and chikungunya virus infection in man in Thailand, 1962–1964. IV. Epidemiologic studies in the Bangkok metropolitan area. Am J Trop Med Hyg 18: 9971021.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ilkal MA, Dhanda V, Hassan MM, Mavale M, Mahadev PVM, Shetty PS, Guttikar SN, Banerjee K, 1991. Entomological investigations during outbreaks of dengue fever in certain villages in Maharashtra state. Indian J Med Res 93: 174178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kabilan L, Velayutham T, Sundaram B, Tewari SC, Natarajan A, Rathnasamy R, Satyanarayana K, 2004. Field- and laboratory-based active dengue surveillance in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India: observations before and during the 2001 dengue epidemic. Am J Infect Control 32: 391396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kow CY, Koon LL, Yin PF, 2001. Detection of dengue viruses in field caught male Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Singapore by type-specific PCR. J Med Entomol 38: 475479.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Pankhong P, Siriprasertkul W, Patpoparn S, Srisuphanunt M, Rojanapremsuk J, Sithiprasasna R, Coleman RE, Nisalak A, Endy TP, Attatippaholkun MK, Attatippaholkun WH, 2002. Molecular serotyping of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes mosquitoes by in-house RNA extraction/RT-PCR reagent kits. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 33 (Suppl 3): 139144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Sithiprasasna R, Patpoparn S, Attatippaholkun W, Suvannadabba S, Srisuphanunt M, 2004. The geographic information system as an epidemiological tool in the surveillance of dengue virus-infected Aedes mosquitoes. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 35: 918926.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Tewari SC, Thenmozhi V, Katholi CR, Manavalan R, Munirathinam A, Gajanana A, 2004. Dengue vector prevalence and virus infection in a rural area in south India. Trop Med Int Health 9: 499507.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Angel B, Joshi V, 2009. Distribution of dengue virus types in Aedes aegypti in dengue endemic districts of Rajasthan, India. Indian J Med Res 129: 665668.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Mendez F, Barreto M, Arias JF, Rengifo G, Munoz J, Burbano ME, Parra B, 2006. Human and mosquito infections by dengue viruses during and after epidemics in a dengue-endemic region of Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 74: 678683.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Pinheiro VCS, Tadei WP, Barros PMSS, Vasconcelos PFC, Cruz ACR, 2005. Detection of dengue virus serotype 3 by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in Aedes aegypti (Diptera, Culicidae) captured in Manaus, Amazonas. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 100: 833839.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Urdaneta L, Herrera F, Pernalete M, Zoghbi N, Rubio-Palis Y, Barrios R, Rivero J, Comach G, Jimenez M, Salcedo M, 2005. Detection of dengue viruses in field-caught Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in Maracay, Aragua state, Venezuela by type-specific polymerase chain reaction. Infect Genet Evol 5: 177184.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    de la Mora-Covarrubias A, Jimenez-Vega F, Trevino-Aguilar SM, 2010. Geospatial distribution and detection of dengue virus in Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti mosquitoes in Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico. Salud Publica Mex 52: 127133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Guedes DRD, Cordeiro MT, Melo-Santos MAV, Magalhaes T, Marques E, Regis L, Furtado AF, Ayres CFJ, 2010. Patient-based dengue virus surveillance in Aedes aegypti from Recife, Brazil. J Vector Borne Dis 47: 6775.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Vilela APP, Figueiredo LB, dos Santos JR, Eiras AE, Bonjardim CA, Ferreira PCP, Kroon EG, 2010. Dengue virus 3 genotype I in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and eggs, Brazil, 2005–2006. Emerg Infect Dis 16: 989992.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Lourenco-de-Oliveira R, Honorio NA, Castro MG, Schatzmayr HG, Miagostovich MP, Alves JC, Silva WC, Leite PJ, Nogueira RM, 2002. Dengue virus type 3 isolation from Aedes aegypti in the municipality of Nova Iguacu, State of Rio de Janeiro. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 97: 799800.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Hwang J-S, Hsu E-L, 1994. Investigations on the distribution and breeding habitats of dengue vectors in Kaohsiung City. Chin J Entomol 14: 233244.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Avila-Montes GA, Martinez M, Sherman C, Cerna EF, 2004. Evaluation of an educational module on dengue and Aedes aegypti for schoolchildren in Honduras. Rev Panam Salud Publica 16: 8494.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Sharma RS, Panigrahi N, Kaul SM, 2001. Aedes aegypti prevalence in hospitals and schools, the priority sites for DHF transmission in Delhi, India. Dengue Bull 25: 107108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Strickman D, Kittayapong P, 2002. Dengue and its vectors in Thailand: introduction to the study and seasonal distribution of Aedes larvae. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67: 247259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Strickman D, Sithiprasasna R, Kittayapong P, Innis BL, 2000. Distribution of dengue and Japanese encephalitis among children in rural and suburban Thai villages. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63: 2735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    da Silva VC, Scherer PO, Falcao SS, Alencar J, Cunha SP, Rodrigues IM, Pinheiro NL, 2006. Diversity of oviposition containers and buildings where Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti can be found. Rev Saude Publica 40: 11061111.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Morrison AC, Sihuincha M, Stancil JD, Zamora E, Astete H, Olson JG, Vidal-Ore C, Scott TW, 2006. Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) production from non-residential sites in the Amazonian city of Iquitos, Peru. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 100: S73S86.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Troyo A, Calderon-Arguedas O, Fuller DO, Solano ME, Avendano A, Arheart KL, Chadee DD, Beier JC, 2008. Seasonal profiles of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) larval habitats in an urban area of Costa Rica with a history of mosquito control. J Vector Ecol 33: 7688.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Hoedojo ST, 1990. Aedes aegypti, control through source reduction by community efforts in Pekalongan, Indonesia. Mosquito-Borne Dis Bull 7: 5962.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Mammen MP, Pimgate C, Koenraadt CJM, Rothman AL, Aldstadt J, Nisalak A, Jarman RG, Jones JW, Srikiatkhachorn A, Ypil-Butac CA, Getis A, Thammapalo S, Morrison AC, Libraty DH, Green S, Scott TW, 2008. Spatial and temporal clustering of dengue virus transmission in Thai villages. PLoS Med 5: e205.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Loroño-Pino MA, Farfan-Ale JA, Rosado-Paredes EP, Kuno G, Gubler DJ, 1993. Epidemic dengue 4 in the Yucatan, Mexico, 1984. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35: 449455.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Carpenter SJ, LaCasse WJ, 1955. Mosquitoes of North America (North of Mexico). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

  • 40.

    Darsie RF Jr, Ward RA, 2005. Identification and Geographical Distribution of the Mosquitoes of North America, North of Mexico. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    World Health Organization, 1975. Manual on Practical Entomology in Malaria, Part II. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

  • 42.

    Seah CLK, Chow VTK, Chan YC, 1995. Semi-nested PCR using NS3 primers for the detection and typing of dengue viruses in clinical serum specimens. Clin Diagn Virol 4: 113120.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Seah CLK, Chow VTK, Tan HC, Chan YC, 1995. Rapid, single-step RT-PCR typing of dengue viruses using five NS3 gene primers. J Virol Methods 51: 193200.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Sall J, Creighton L, Lehman A, 2005. JMP Start Statistics, 3rd ed. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.

  • 45.

    Barrett AD, Higgs S, 2007. Yellow fever: a disease that has yet to be conquered. Annu Rev Entomol 52: 209229.

  • 46.

    Gratz NG, 1999. Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases. Annu Rev Entomol 44: 5175.

  • 47.

    Gubler DJ, 2002. The global emergence/resurgence of arboviral diseases as public health problems. Arch Med Res 33: 330342.

  • 48.

    Bockarie MJ, Pedersen EM, White GB, Michael E, 2009. Role of vector control in the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annu Rev Entomol 54: 469487.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Day JF, 2001. Predicting St. Louis encephalitis virus epidemics: lessons from recent, and not so recent, outbreaks. Annu Rev Entomol 46: 111138.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Turell MJ, Dohm DJ, Sardelis MR, O'Guinn ML, Andreadis TG, Blow JA, 2005. An update on the potential of North American mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) to transmit West Nile virus. J Med Entomol 42: 5762.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    van den Hurk AF, Ritchie SA, Mackenzie JS, 2009. Ecology and geographical expansion of Japanese encephalitis virus. Annu Rev Entomol 54: 1735.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    García-Rejón JE, Blitvich BJ, Farfán-Ale JA, Loroño-Pino MA, Chim WAC, Flores-Flores LF, Rosado-Paredes E, Baak-Baak C, Perez-Mutul J, Suarez-Solis V, Fernandez-Salas I, Beaty BJ, 2010. Host-feeding preference of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, in Yucatan State, Mexico. J Insect Sci 10: 32.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Farfán-Ale JA, Loroño-Pino MA, García-Rejón JE, Hovav E, Powers AM, Lin M, Dorman KS, Platt KB, Bartholomay LC, Soto V, Beaty BJ, Lanciotti RS, Blitvich BJ, 2009. Detection of RNA from a novel West Nile-like virus and high prevalence of an insect-specific flavivirus in mosquitoes in the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 8595.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Christensen HA, de Vasquez AM, Boreham MM, 1996. Host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) from central Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 55: 202208.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Edman JD, 1971. Host-feeding patterns of Florida mosquitoes. I. Aedes, Anopheles, Coquilletidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. J Med Entomol 8: 687695.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Turell MJ, Beaman JR, Neely GW, 1994. Experimental transmission of eastern equine encephalitis virus by strains of Aedes albopictus and A. taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol 31: 287290.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Manrique-Saide P, Escobedo-Ortegon M, Bolio-Gonzalez M, Sauri-Arceo C, Dzib-Florez S, Guillermo-May G, Ceh-Pavia E, Lenhart A, 2010. Incrimination of the mosquito, Aedes taeniorhynchus, as the primary vector of heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, in coastal Yucatan, Mexico. Med Vet Entomol 24: 456460.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Davila G, Nelson MJ, Turner A, Garcia A, 1991. Resting sites for Aedes aegypti in Panama. J Am Mosq Control Assoc 7: 633634.

  • 59.

    Macdonald WW, 1956. Aedes aegypti in Malaya. I. Distribution and dispersal. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 50: 385398.

  • 60.

    Perich MJ, Davila G, Turner A, Garcia A, Nelson M, 2000. Behavior of resting Aedes aegypti (Culicidae: Diptera) and its relation to ultra-low volume adulticide efficacy in Panama City, Panama. J Med Entomol 37: 541546.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Barrera R, Amador M, Diaz A, Smith J, Munoz-Jordan JL, Rosario Y, 2008. Unusual productivity of Aedes aegypti in septic tanks and its implications for dengue control. Med Vet Entomol 22: 6269.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Nishiura H, Halstead SB, 2007. Natural history of dengue virus (DENV)-1 and DENV-4 infections: reanalysis of classic studies. J Infect Dis 195: 10071013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    de Benedictis J, Chow-Shaffer E, Costero A, Clark GG, Edman JD, Scott TW, 2003. Identification of the people from whom engorged Aedes aegypti took blood meals in Florida, Puerto Rico, using polymerase chain reaction-based DNA profiling. Am J Trop Med Hyg 68: 437446.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Gu W, Lampman R, Novak RJ, 2004. Assessment of arbovirus vector infection rates using variable size pooling. Med Vet Entomol 18: 200204.

  • 65.

    Biggerstaff BJ, 2006. PooledInfRate, Version 3.0: A Microsoft Excel Add-In to Compute Prevalence Estimates from Pooled Samples. Fort Collins, CO: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mosquito Infestation and Dengue Virus Infection in Aedes aegypti Females in Schools in Mérida, México

View More View Less
  • Laboratorio de Arbovirología, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Centro, Mérida, Yucatán, México; Servicios de Salud de Yucatán, Centro, Mérida, Yucatán, México; Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado

We determined abundance of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes and presence of dengue virus (DENV) in females collected from schools in Mérida, México, during 2008 and 2009. Backpack aspiration from 24 schools produced 468 females of Ae. aegypti and 1,676 females of another human biter, Culex quinquefasciatus. Ae. aegypti females were collected most commonly from classrooms followed by offices and bathrooms. Of these females, 24.7% were freshly fed. Examination of 118 pools of Ae. aegypti females (total of 415 females) for presence of DENV RNA produced 19 positive pools (16.1%). DENV-infected pools were detected from 11 (45.8%) of 24 schools and came from different room types, including classrooms, offices, and bathrooms. The overall rate of DENV infection per 100 Ae. aegypti females was 4.8. We conclude that schools in Mérida present a risk environment for students, teachers, and other personnel to be exposed to mosquitoes and bites of DENV-infected Ae. aegypti females.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Lars Eisen, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523. E-mail: lars.eisen@colostate.edu

Financial support: The study was funded by the Innovative Vector Control Consortium.

Authors' addresses: Julián E. García-Rejón, María Alba Loroño-Pino, José Arturo Farfán-Ale, Luis F. Flores-Flores, and Mildred P. López-Uribe, Laboratorio de Arbovirología, Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Dr. Hideyo Noguchi, Universidad Autónoma de Yucatán, Centro, Mérida, Yucatán, México, E-mails: grejon@tunku.uady.mx, maria.lorono@gmail.com, jafarfan@tunku.uady.mx, fflores@uady.mx, and mpaluo@hotmail.com. Maria del Rosario Najera-Vazquez and Guadalupe Nuñez-Ayala, Servicios de Salud de Yucatán, Centro, Mérida, Yucatán, México, E-mails: dengue.yucatan@ssy.gob.mx and guadalupe.nunez@ssy.gob.mx. Barry J. Beaty and Lars Eisen, Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Pathology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: Barry.Beaty@ColoState.EDU and lars.eisen@colostate.edu.

Save