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Relationship of the Presence of a Household Improved Latrine with Diarrhea and Under-Five Child Mortality in Indonesia

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  • Department of Ophthalmology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Sight and Life, DSM, Basel, Switzerland; Nutrition Service, Policy, Strategy and Programme Support Division, World Food Programme, Rome, Italy; Helen Keller International Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland

We characterized the relationship of the presence of an improved latrine with diarrhea and under-five child mortality in Indonesia. The proportion of rural and urban families, respectively, without an improved latrine was 52.1% and 16.2%, with a child with a history of diarrhea in the last 7 days was 8.2% and 9.7%, and with a history of under-five child mortality was 11.1% and 8.5%. Among rural and urban families, respectively, lack of an improved latrine was associated with a child history of diarrhea in the last 7 days (odds ratio [OR] = 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18–1.29, P < 0.0001; OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.13–1.27, P < 0.0001) and under-five child mortality (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.25–1.31, P < 0.0001; OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.12–1.32, P < 0.0001) in separate multivariable logistic regression models adjusting for covariates. The lack of a household improved latrine is associated with diarrhea and under-five child mortality in Indonesia.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Richard D. Semba, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 400 N. Broadway, M015, Baltimore, MD 21287. E-mail: rdsemba@jhmi.edu

Authors' addresses: Richard D. Semba, Kai Sun, and Ashley A. Campbell, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, E-mails: rdsemba@jhmi.edu, ksun5@jhmi.edu, and ashley.campbell@jhmi.edu. Klaus Kraemer and Jee Hyun Rah, Sight and Life, DSM, Basel, Switzerland, E-mails: klaus.kraemer@dsm.com and Jee-Hyun.Rah@dsm.com. Saskia de Pee and Martin W. Bloem, Nutrition Service, Policy, Strategy, and Planning Division, World Food Programme, Rome, Italy, E-mails: depee.saskia@gmail.com and martin.bloem@wfp.org. Nasima Akhter, Helen Keller International Asia Pacific, Dhaka, Bangladesh, E-mail: amarchiti@gmail.com. Regina Moench-Pfanner, Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: rmoenchpfanner@gaingeneva.org. Jane Badham, JB Consultancy, E-mail: jane@jbconsultancy.co.za.

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