Snow RW, Craig M, Deichmann U, Marsh K, 1999. Estimating mortality, morbidity and disability due to malaria among Africa's non-pregnant population. Bull World Health Organ 77: 624–640.
Steketee RW, Bremen JG, 1988. Malaria infection in pregnant women in Zaire: the effects and potential for intervention. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 82: 113–120.
Verhoeff FH, Brabin BJ, Hart CA, Chimsuku L, Kazembe P, Broadhead RL, 1999. Increased prevalence of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women and its implications for malaria control. Trop Med Int Health 4: 5–12.
Van Eijk AM, Ayisi JG, ter Kuile FO, Misore A, Otieno JA, Kolczak MS, Kager PA, Steketee RW, Nahlen BL, 2001. Human immunodeficiency virus seropositivity and malaria as risk factors for third-trimester anemia in asymptomatic pregnant women in western Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg 65: 623–630.
Brabin BJ, 1983. An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull World Health Organ 61: 1005–1016.
Raghupathy R, 1997. Th1-type immunity is incompatible with successful pregnancy. Immunol Today 18: 478–482.
Mohan K, Moulin P, Stevenson MM, 1997. Natural killer cell cytokine production, not cytotoxicity, contributes to resistance against blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi AS infection. J Immunol 159: 4990–4998.
Richards AL, 1997. Tumour necrosis factor and associated cytokines in the host's response to malaria. Int J Parasitol 27: 1251–1253.
Choudhury HR, Sheikh NA, Bancroft GJ, Katz DR, de Souza JB, 2000. Early nonspecific immune responses and immunity to blood-stage nonlethal Plasmodium yoelii malaria. Infect Immun 68: 6127–6132.
Finkelman FD, Shea-Donohue T, Goldhill J, Sullivan CA, Morris SC, Madden KB, Gause WC, Urban JF Jr, 1997. Cytokine regulation of host defense against parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes: lessons from studies with rodent models. Annu Rev Immunol 15: 505–533.
Cooper PJ, Chico ME, Sandoval C, Espinel I, Guevara A, Kennedy MW, Urban JF Jr, Griffin GE, Nutman TB, 2000. Human infection with Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with a polarized cytokine response. J Infect Dis 182: 1207–1213.
Spiegel A, Tall A, Raphenon G, Trape J-F, Druilhe P, 2003. Increased frequency of malaria attacks in subjects co-infected by intestinal worms and Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 97: 198–199.
Lyke KE, Dicko A, Dabo A, Sangare L, Kone A, Coulibaly D, Guindo A, Traore K, Daou M, Diarra I, Sztein MB, Plowe CV, Doumbo OK, 2005. Association of Schistosoma haematobium infection with protection against acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Malian children. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73: 1124–1130.
Briand V, Watier L, Le Hesran J-Y, Garcia A, Cot M, 2005. Coinfection with Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma haematobium: protective effect of schistosomiasis on malaria in Senegalese children? Am J Trop Med Hyg 72: 702–707.
Le Hesran J-Y, Akiana J, Ndiaye EHM, Dia M, Senghor P, Konate L, 2004. Severe malaria attack is associated with high prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides infection among children in rural Senegal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98: 397–399.
Tshikuka JG, Scott ME, Gray-Donald K, Kalumba ON, 1996. Multiple infection with Plasmodium and helminths in communities of low and relatively high socio-economic status. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 90: 277–293.
Diallo TO, Remoue F, Schacht AM, Charrier N, Dompnier JP, Pillet S, Garraud O, N'diaye AA, Capron A, Capron M, Riveau G, 2004. Schistosomiasis co-infection in humans influences inflammatory markers in uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Parasite Immunol 26: 365–369.
World Health Organization, 2002. Prevention and Control of Schistosomiasis and Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis. Report of a WHO Expert Committee. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_912.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2009.
Bethony J, Brooker S, Albonico M, Geiger SM, Loukas A, Diemert D, Hotez PJ, 2006. Soil-transmitted helminth infections: ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm. Lancet 367: 1521–1532.
Gryseels B, Polman K, Clerinx J, Kestens L, 2006. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet 368: 1106–1118.
Petney TN, Andrews RH, 1998. Multiparasite communities in animals and humans: frequency, structure, and pathogenic significance. Int J Parasitol 28: 377–393.
Egwunyenga AO, Ajayi JA, Nmorsi OPG, Duhlinska-Popova DD, 2001. Plasmodium/intestinal helminth co-infections among pregnant Nigerian women. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 96: 1055–1059.
Hillier SD, Booth M, Muhangi L, Nkurunziza P, Khihembo M, Kakande M, Sewankambo M, Kizindo R, Kizza M, Muwanga M, Elliott AM, 2008. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth coinfection in a semiurban population of pregnant women in Uganda. J Infect Dis 198: 920–927.
Filler SJ, Kazembe P, Thigpen M, Macheso A, Parise ME, Newman RD, Steketee RW, Hamel M, 2006. Randomized trial of 2-dose versus monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine intermittent preventive treatment for malaria in HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women in Malawi. J Infect Dis 194: 286–293.
Katz N, Chaves A, Pellegrino J, 1972. A simple device for quantitative stool thick-smear technique in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14: 397–400.
World Health Organization, 1998. Guidelines for the Evaluation of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiasis and Schistosomiasis at Community Level. A Guide for Managers of Control Programmes. Available at: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/1998/WHO_CTD_SIP_98.1.pdf. Accessed August 30, 2009.
Guay LA, Musoke P, Fleming T, Bagenda D, Allen M, Nakabiito C, Sherman J, Bakaki P, Ducar C, Deseyve M, Emel L, Mirochnick M, Fowler MG, Mofenson L, Miotti P, Dransfield K, Bray D, Mmiro F, Jackson JB, 1999. Intrapartum and neonatal single-dose nevirapine compared with zidovudine for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 in Kampala, Uganda: HIVNET 012 randomised trial. Lancet 354: 795–802.
Yatich NJ, Yi J, Agbenyega T, Turpin A, Rayner JC, Stiles JK, Ellis WO, Funkhouser E, Ehiri JE, Williams JH, Jolly PE, 2009. Malaria and intestinal helminth co-infection among pregnant women in Ghana: prevalence and risk factors. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80: 896–901.
van Eijk AM, Lindblade KA, Odhiambo F, Peterson E, Rosen DH, Karanja D, Ayisi JG, Shi YP, Adazu K, Slutsker L, 2009. Geohelminth infections among pregnant women in rural western Kenya: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e370.
Hartgers FC, Yazdanbakhsh M, 2006. Co-infection of helminths and malaria: modulation of the immune responses to malaria. Parasite Immunol 28: 497–506.
Everts B, Perona-Wright G, Smits HH, Cornelis H, Hokke CH, van der Ham AJ, Fitzsimmons CM, Doenhoff MJ, van der Bosch J, Mohrs K, Haas H, Mohrs M, Yazdanbakhsh M, Schramm G, 2009. Omega-1, a glycoprotein secreted by Schistosoma mansoni eggs, drives Th2 responses. J Exp Med 206: 1673–1680.
Brutus L, Watier L, Briand V, Hanitrasoamampionona V, Razanatsoarilala H, Cot M, 2006. Parasitic co-infections: does Ascaris lumbricoides protect against Plasmodium falciparum infection? Am J Trop Med Hyg 75: 194–198.
Sajid MS, Iqbal Z, Muhammad G, Iqbal MU, 2006. Immunomodulatory effect of various anti-parasitics: a review. Parasitol 132: 301–313.
ter Kuile FO, Parise ME, Verhoeff FH, Udhayakumar V, Newman RD, Van Eijk AM, Rogerson SJ, Steketee RW, 2004. The burden of co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and malaria in pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg 71: 41–54.
Secor WE, 2006. Interactions between schistosomiasis and infection with HIV-1. Parasite Immunol 28: 597–603.
Bowie C, Purcell B, Shaba B, Makaula P, Perez M, 2004. A national survey of the prevalence of schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in Malawi. BMC Infect Dis 4: 49.
Elliott AM, Kizza M, Quigley MA, Ndibazza J, Nampijja M, Muhangi L, Morison L, Namujju PB, Muwanga M, Kabatereine N, Whitworth JAG, 2007. The impact of helminths on the response to immunization and on the incidence of infection and disease in childhood in Uganda: design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial of deworming interventions delivered in pregnancy and early childhood. Clin Trials 4: 42–57.
Wiria AE, Prasetyani MA, Hamid F, Wammes LJ, Lell B, Ariawan I, Uh HW, Wibowo H, Djuardi Y, Wahyuni S, Sutanto I, May L, Luty AJF, Verweij JJ, Sartono E, Yazdanbakhsh M, Supali T, 2010. Does treatment of intestinal helminth infections influence malaria? Background and methodology of a longitudinal study of clinical, parasitological and immunological parameters in Nangapanda, Flores, Indonesia (ImmunoSPIN Study). BMC Infect Dis 10: 77.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||337||149||0|
Approximately 2 billion persons worldwide are infected with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthes (STH), many in areas where endemic malaria transmission coexists. Few data exist on associations between these infections. Nested within a larger clinical trial, primigravid and secundigravid women provided blood samples for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing and peripheral malaria films and stool and urine for evaluation of STH and Schistosoma spp. during their initial antenatal clinic visit. The most common parasitic infections were malaria (37.6%), S. haematobium (32.3%), and hookworm (14.4%); 14.2% of women were HIV-infected. S. haematobium infection was associated with lower malarial parasite densities (344 versus 557 parasites/μL blood; P < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, HIV and hookworm infection were independently associated with malaria infection (adjusted odds ratio = 1.9 and 95% confidence interval = 1.2–3.0 for HIV; adjusted odds ratio = 1.9 and 95% confidence interval = 1.03–3.5 for hookworm). Concurrent helminthic infection had both positive and negative effects on malaria parasitemia among pregnant women in Malawi.
Authors' addresses: Michael C. Thigpen, Division of Vector Borne Infectious Disease, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mail: email@example.com. Scott J. Filler, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: SFiller@cdc.gov. Peter N. Kzaembe, Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation, Malawi, Lilongwe, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Monica E. Parise, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Allan Macheso, UNICEF Malawi, Lilongwe 3, Malawi E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Carl H. Campbell, Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE), Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), The University of Georgia, Athens, GA, E-mail: email@example.com. Robert D. Newman, Global Malaria Programme, World Health Organization, Geneva, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. Richard W. Steketee, Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), PATH, Seattle, WA, E-mail: email@example.com. Mary Hamel, Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria, Center for Global Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.