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Plasmodium vivax Sporozoite Production in Anopheles albimanus Mosquitoes for Vaccine Clinical Trials

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  • Instituto de Inmunología del Valle, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia; Malaria Vaccine and Drug Develpment Center, Cali, Colombia; Departamento de Ciencias Agrícolas, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Palmira, Colombia; Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Vaccine development for Plasmodium vivax malaria is underway. A model to assess the protective efficacy of vaccine candidates in humans is urgently needed. Given the lack of continuous P. vivax cultures, we developed a system to infect Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes using blood from P. vivax-infected patients and determined parameters for challenge of malaria-naive volunteers by mosquito bite. Absence of co-infections in parasitized blood was confirmed by tests consistent with blood bank screening. A total of 119 experiments were conducted using batches of 900–4,500 mosquitoes fed by an artificial membrane feeding method. Optimal conditions for mosquito probing and infection were determined. Presence of oocyst and sporozoites were assessed on Days 7–8 and 14–15, respectively, and conditions to choose batches of infected mosquitoes for sporozoite challenge were established. Procedures to infect volunteers took a 2-hour period including verification of inoculum dose. Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes represent a valuable resource for P. vivax sporozoite challenge of volunteers.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Sócrates Herrera, Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Carrera 37 - 2Bis No. 5E - 08, Cali, Colombia. E-mail: sherrera@inmuno.org

Financial support: This work was supported by WHO-IVR and the World Health Organization/Tropical Diseases Research Special Program (Research Capability Strengthening contract no. LA-35735G), the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases through Tropical Medicine Research Centers (grant no. 49486), National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI), Bethesda, COLCIENCIAS and the Colombian Ministry for Social Protection (contract nos. 253-2005 and 207-2007) and through an International Center of Excellence for Malaria Research NIAID/ICEMR grant no U 19AI089702.

Authors' addresses: Yezid Solarte, Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, and Sócrates Herrera, Instituto de Inmunología, Edificio de Microbiología, Facultad de Salud, Universidad del Valle and Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia, E-mails: ysolarte@inmuno.org, marevalo@inmuno.org, and sherrera@inmuno.org. María R. Manzano, Departamento de Ciencias Agrícolas, Universidad Nacional, Palmira, Colombia, E-mail: mrmanzanom@palmira.unal.edu.co. Leonardo Rocha and Hugo Hurtado, Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Cali, Colombia, E-mails: lrocha94@hotmail.com and hhurtado01@gmail.com. Mark A. James, Department of Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, E-mail: mjames@tulane.edu.

Reprint requests: Sócrates Herrera, Malaria Vaccine and Drug Development Center, Carrera 37 - 2Bis No. 5E - 08, Cali, Colombia, E-mail: sherrera@inmuno.org.

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