Guaroa Virus Infection among Humans in Bolivia and Peru

Patricia V. Aguilar Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Patricia V. Aguilar in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Amy C. Morrison Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Amy C. Morrison in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Claudio Rocha Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Claudio Rocha in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Douglas M. Watts Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Douglas M. Watts in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Luis Beingolea Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Luis Beingolea in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Victor Suarez Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Victor Suarez in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Jorge Vargas Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Jorge Vargas in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Cristhopher Cruz Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Cristhopher Cruz in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Carolina Guevara Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Carolina Guevara in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Joel M. Montgomery Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Joel M. Montgomery in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
,
Robert B. Tesh Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Robert B. Tesh in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
, and
Tadeusz J. Kochel Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru; Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, California; Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru; National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru; Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia; Department of Pathology and Center for Biodefense and Emerging Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas

Search for other papers by Tadeusz J. Kochel in
Current site
Google Scholar
PubMed
Close
Restricted access

Guaroa virus (GROV) was first isolated from humans in Colombia in 1959. Subsequent isolates of the virus have been recovered from febrile patients and mosquitoes in Brazil, Colombia, and Panama; however, association of the virus with human disease has been unclear. As part of a study on the etiology of febrile illnesses in Peru and Bolivia, 14 GROV strains were isolated from patients with febrile illnesses, and 3 additional cases were confirmed by IgM seroconversion. The prevalence rate of GROV antibodies among Iquitos residents was 13%; the highest rates were among persons with occupations such as woodcutters, fisherman, and oil-field workers. Genetic characterization of representative GROV isolates indicated that strains from Peru and Bolivia form a monophyletic group that can be distinguished from strains isolated earlier in Brazil and Colombia. This study confirms GROV as a cause of febrile illness in tropical regions of Central and South America.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Patricia V. Aguilar, United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, 3230 Lima Place, Washington, DC 20521-3230. E-mail: patricia.aguilar@med.navy.mil

Authors' addresses: Patricia V. Aguilar, United States Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Washington, DC, E-mail: patricia.aguilar@med.navy.mil. Douglas M. Watts, Office of Research and Sponsored Projects, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX. Amy C. Morrison, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Iquitos, Peru and Department of Entomology, University of California, Davis, CA, E-mail: amy.aegypti@gmail.com. Claudio Rocha, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Iquitos, Peru, E-mail: claudiorochacalderon@gmail.com. Cristhopher Cruz, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru, E-mail: cristhopher.cruz@med.navy.mil. Carolina Guevara, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru, E-mail: carolina.guevara@med.navy.mil. Joel M. Montgomery, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru, E-mail: joel.montgomery@med.navy.mil. Tadeusz J. Kochel, Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru, E-mail: tad.kochel@med.navy.mil. Luis Beingolea, Office of Epidemiology, Lima, Peru, E-mail: lbeingolea@conhu.org.pe. Victor Suarez, National Institute of Health, Lima, Peru, E-mail: vjsuarezm@yahoo.com. Jorge Vargas, Centro de Enfermedades Tropicales, Santa Cruz, Bolivia, E-mail: drjvargasf@hotmail.com.

  • 1.

    Groot H, Oya A, Bernal C, Barreto-Reyes P, 1959. Guaroa virus, a new agent isolated in Colombia, South America. Am J Trop Med Hyg 8: 604609.

  • 2.

    Causey OR, Shope RE, Rodrigues Filho A, 1962. Isolamento do virus Guaroa do figado por biopsia percutanea de um caso humano com paralisia. Rev Serv Espec Saude Pub 12: 5559.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Causey OR, Causey CE, Maroja OM, Macedo DG, 1961. The isolation of arthropod-borne viruses, including members of two hitherto undescribed serologic groups, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 10: 227249.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Lee VH, Sanmartin C, 1967. Isolations of Guaroa virus from Anopheles (Kerteszia) Neivai in the Pacific lowlands of Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg 16: 778781.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Groot H, 1964. Estudios sobre virus transmitidos por artropodos en Colombia. Rev Acad Colomb 12: 197217.

  • 6.

    Peralta PH, Shelokov A, 1966. Isolation and characterization of arboviruses from Almirante, Republic of Panama. Am J Trop Med Hyg 15: 369378.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Sun X, Fu S, Gong Z, Ge J, Meng W, Feng Y, Wang J, Zhai Y, Wang H, Nasci R, Tang Q, Liang G, 2009. Distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern Yunnan Province, China. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 9: 623630.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Vieira Cde M, Nunes MR, da Silva EV, Carvalho VL, Nunes Neto JP, Cruz AC, Casseb SM, Vasconcelos HB, Quaresma JA, Vasconcelos PF, 2009. Full-length sequencing and genetic characterization of Breu Branco virus (Reoviridae, Orbivirus) and two related strains isolated from Anopheles mosquitoes. J Gen Virol 90: 21832190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Theiler M, Downs WG, 1973. The Arthropod-Borne Viruses of Vertebrates. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

  • 10.

    Nichol ST, Beaty BJ, Elliott RM, Goldbach R, Plyusnin A, Schmaljohn CS, Tesh RB, 2005. Family Bunyaviridae. Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy. Eighth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press, 695716.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Gentsch JR, Bishop DH, 1978. Small viral RNA segment of bunyaviruses codes for viral nucleocapsid protein. J Virol 28: 417419.

  • 12.

    Gentsch JR, Bishop DHL, 1979. M viral RNA segment of bunyaviruses codes for two glycoproteins, G1 and G2. J Virol 30: 767770.

  • 13.

    Calisher CH, 1996. History, classification and taxonomy of viruses in the family Bunyaviridae. Elliot RM, ed. The Bunyaviridae. New York: Plenum Press, 117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Whitman L, Shope RE, 1962. The California complex of arthropod-borne viruses and its relationship to the Bunyamwera group through Guaroa virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 11: 691696.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Bishop DH, 1982. The molecular properties of bunyaviruses including Group C isolates and the genetic capabilities of bunyaviruses to form recombinants. Pinheiro FP, ed. International Symposium on Tropical Arboviruses and Haemorrhagic Fevers. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 117133.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Dunn EF, Pritlove DC, Elliott RM, 1994. The S RNA genome segments of Batai, Cache Valley, Guaroa, Kairi, Lumbo, Main Drain and Northway bunyaviruses: sequence determination and analysis. J Gen Virol 75: 597608.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Watts DM, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste MS, Roehrig JT, Wooster MT, Smith JF, Cropp CB, Gentrau EM, Karabatsos N, Gubler D, Hayes CG, 1998. Venezuelan equine encephalitis febrile cases among humans in the Peruvian Amazon River region. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 3540.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Morrison AC, Forshey BM, Notyce D, Astete H, Lopez V, Rocha C, Carrion R, Carey C, Eza D, Montgomery JM, Kochel TJ, 2008. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus in Iquitos, Peru: urban transmission of a sylvatic strain. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2: e349.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Aguilar PV, Greene IP, Coffey LL, Medina G, Moncayo AC, Anishchenko M, Ludwig GV, Turell MJ, O'Guinn ML, Lee J, Tesh RB, Watts DM, Russell KL, Hice C, Yanoviak S, Morrison AC, Klein TA, Dohm DJ, Guzman H, Travassos da Rosa AP, Guevara C, Kochel T, Olson J, Cabezas C, Weaver SC, 2004. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru. Emerg Infect Dis 10: 880888.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Oberste MS, Weaver SC, Watts DM, Smith JF, 1998. Identification and genetic analysis of Panama-genotype Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus subtype ID in Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 58: 4146.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Watts DM, Lavera V, Callahan J, Rossi C, Oberste MS, Roehrig JT, Cropp CB, Karabatsos N, Smith JF, Gubler DJ, Wooster MT, Nelson WM, Hayes CG, 1997. Venezuelan equine encephalitis and Oropouche virus infections among Peruvian army troops in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 56: 661667.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Travassos da Rosa AP, Turell MJ, Watts DM, Powers AM, Vasconcelos PF, Jones JW, Klein TA, Dohm DJ, Shope RE, Degallier N, Popov VL, Russell KL, Weaver SC, Guzman H, Calampa C, Brault AC, Lemon AP, Tesh RB, 2001. Trocara virus: a newly recognized Alphavirus (Togaviridae) isolated from mosquitoes in the Amazon Basin. Am J Trop Med Hyg 64: 9397.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Turell MJ, O'Guinn ML, Jones JW, Sardelis MR, Dohm DJ, Watts DM, Fernandez R, Travassos da Rosa A, Guzman H, Tesh R, Rossi CA, Ludwig V, Mangiafico JA, Kondig J, Wasieloski LP Jr, Pecor J, Zyzak M, Schoeler G, Mores CN, Calampa C, Lee JS, Klein TA, 2005. Isolation of viruses from mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. J Med Entomol 42: 891898.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Bowen MD, Trappier SG, Sanchez AJ, Meyer RF, Goldsmith CS, Zaki SR, Dunster LM, Peters CJ, Ksiazek TG, Nichol ST, 2001. A reassortant bunyavirus isolated from acute hemorrhagic fever cases in Kenya and Somalia. Virology 291: 185190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Swofford DL, 1998. PAUP* Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (*and Other Methods). Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.

  • 26.

    Wilgenbusch JC, Swofford D, 2003. Inferring evolutionary trees with PAUP*. Current Protocols in Bioinformatics, Chapter 6: Unit 6.4. Somerset, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Aguilar PV, Robich RM, Turell MJ, O'Guinn ML, Klein TA, Huaman A, Guevara C, Rios Z, Tesh RB, Watts DM, Olson J, Weaver SC, 2007. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 293298.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Kondig JP, Turell MJ, Lee JS, O'Guinn ML, Wasieloski LP Jr, 2007. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 408416.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Madalengoitia J, Flores W, Casals J, 1973. Arbovirus antibody survey of sera from residents of eastern Peru. PAHO Bull 7: 2534.

  • 30.

    Yanoviak SP, Aguilar PV, Lounibos LP, Weaver SC, 2005. Transmission of a Venezuelan equine encephalitis complex Alphavirus by Culex (Melanoconion) gnomatos (Diptera: Culicidae) in northeastern Peru. J Med Entomol 42: 404408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa APA, 1994. Guaroa and other Bunyamwera group fevers. Beran GW, ed. Handbook of Zoonoses. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 217218.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Pinheiro FP, Travassos da Rosa APA, Freitas RB, Travassos da Rosa JFS, Vasconcelos PF, 1986. Aspectos clinico-epidemiologicos dos arbovirus. Instituto Evandro Chagas: 50 anos de contribuicao as ciencias biologicas e a medicina tropical. Belem, Brazil: Fundacao Servicos de Saude Publica, 375408.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Beaty BJ, Calisher CH, Shope RE, 1989. Arboviruses. Schmidt NJ, Emmons EW, eds. Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial and Chlamydial Infections. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association, 797855.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Vasconcelos PF, Travassos da Rosa AP, Rodrigues SG, Travassos da Rosa ES, Degallier N, Travassos da Rosa JF, 2001. Inadequate management of natural ecosystem in the Brazilian Amazon region results in the emergence and reemergence of arboviruses. Cad Saude Publica 17 (Suppl): 155164.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Past two years Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 46 46 4
Full Text Views 379 106 0
PDF Downloads 135 43 0
 
Membership Banner
 
 
 
Affiliate Membership Banner
 
 
Research for Health Information Banner
 
 
CLOCKSS
 
 
 
Society Publishers Coalition Banner
Save