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Rapid Detection of Lactate Dehydrogenase and Genotyping of Plasmodium falciparum in Saliva of Children with Acute Uncomplicated Malaria

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  • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Malaria Research Laboratories, Institute of Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria; Stewardship for Research, Tropical Disease Research (TDR), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
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The diagnosis of malaria in biological fluids other than blood using non-invasive, rapid diagnostic techniques provides a valuable approach in case management and epidemiological studies of malaria. Rapid detection of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) in saliva samples from 130 of 144 children with microscopically confirmed P. falciparum infection was evaluated using Optimal-IT dipsticks. Genotyping of parasites was also performed in saliva and blood samples from a cohort of patients by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-blood, whole-saliva, or supernatant of spun saliva samples was 97.2%, 77.9%, and 48.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the dipstick in whole-saliva samples was significantly higher than in supernatant of spun saliva samples (P < 0.0005). Mutant T76 allele was detectable in 60% and 57% of blood and saliva samples, respectively. This finding shows rapid detection of pLDH in patient saliva.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Grace O. Gbotosho, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. E-mail: solagbotosho@yahoo.co.uk

Financial support: This study was supported by grants from the European Union and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP), the Fogarty International Center/National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Multilateral Initiative for Malaria in Africa (MIM)/Tropical Disease Research (TDR). G.O.G. is supported by the MIM/TDR projects ID A20239 and A20244. C.T.H. is supported EDCTP Grant Award no. TA2007/40200016 for Senior Research Fellowship and Fogarty International Research Collaboration Award (FIRCA) NIH no. RO3TW007757-03. A.S. is supported by a Swiss Pharma Nigeria PLC Grant.

Authors' addresses: Grace O. Gbotosho, Christian T. Happi, Onikepe Folarin, Ochuko Keyamo, and Akintunde Sowunmi, Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics and Malaria Research Laboratories, Institute of Advanced Medical Research and Training, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, E-mails: solagbotosho@yahoo.co.uk, christianhappi@hotmail.com, onikepefolarin@yahoo.com, ochukzee@yahoo.com, and akinsowunmi@hotmail.com. Ayoade M. J. Oduola, Strategic and Discovery Research, World Health Organization/Tropical Disease Research, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: oduolaa@who.int.

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