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Malaria Incidence and Prevalence Among Children Living in a Peri-Urban Area on the Coast of Benin, West Africa: A Longitudinal Study

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  • Centre de Recherches Entomologiques de Cotonou, Cotonou, Bénin; Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Hôpital de Zone, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin; Laboratoire de Parasitologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Nationale du Bénin, Cotonou, Bénin
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Clinical malaria incidence was determined over 18 months in a cohort of 553 children living in a peri-urban area near Cotonou. Three cross-sectional surveys were also carried out. Malaria incidence showed a marked seasonal distribution with two peaks: the first corresponding to the long rainy season, and the second corresponding to the overflowing of Lake Nokoue. The overall Plasmodium falciparum incidence rate was estimated at 84/1,000 person-months, and its prevalence was estimated at over 40% in the two first surveys and 68.9% in the third survey. Multivariate analysis showed that girls and people living in closed houses had a lower risk of clinical malaria. Bed net use was associated with a lower risk of malaria infection. Conversely, children of families owing a pirogue were at higher risk of clinical malaria. Considering the high pyrethroids resistance, indoor residual spraying with either a carbamate or an organophospate insecticide may have a major impact on the malaria burden.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Alain Nahum, Centre de Recherches Entomologique de Cotonou, (CREC), 06 BP 2604, Cotonou, République du Bénin. E-mail: nahum_alain@yahoo.fr

Financial support: This study was funded by the Benin Ministry of Health through the Population Health Project.

Authors' addresses: Alain Nahum, Daniel Ahounou, and Martin Akogbeto, Centre de Recherches Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), 06 BP 2604, Cotonou, République du Bénin, E-mails: nahum_alain@yahoo.fr, danahoun@yahoo.fr, and akogbetom@yahoo.fr. Ambroisine N. Maye, Hôpital de Zone, BP1673, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin, E-mail: ambroisinemaye@yahoo.fr. Achille Massougbodji, Unité d'Enseignement de Recherche en Parasitologie-Mycologie, Faculté des Sciences de la Santé, Université Nationale du Bénin, BP 188 Cotonou, République du Bénin, E-mail: massougbodjiachille@yahoo.fr. Annette Erhart, Chantal Van Overmeir, Joris Menten, Harry Van Loen, Marc Coosemans, and Umberto D'Alessandro, Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, B-2000, Antwerp, Belgium, E-mails: aerhart@itg.be, cvovermeir@itg.be, jmenten@itg.be, hvanloen@itg.be, mcoosemans@itg.be, and udalessandro@itg.be.

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