• 1.

    Scott GR, Heisch RB, 1959. Rift Valley fever and Rift Valley rodents. East Afr Med J 36: 665667.

  • 2.

    Mundel B, Gear J, 1951. Rift valley fever. I. The occurrence of human cases in Johannesburg. S Afr Med J 25: 797800.

  • 3.

    Swanepoel R, 1976. Studies on the epidemiology of Rift Valley fever. JS Afr Vet Assoc 47: 9394.

  • 4.

    Imam IZ, Darwish MA, 1977. A preliminary report on an epidemic of Rift Valley fever (RVF) in Egypt. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 52: 417418.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Morvan J, Lesbordes JL, Rollin PE, Mouden JC, Roux J, 1992. First fatal human case of Rift Valley fever in Madagascar. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 86: 320.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Madani TA, Al-Mazrou YY, Al-Jeffri MH, Mishkhas AA, Al-Rabeah AM, Turkistani AM, Al-Sayed MO, Abodahish AA, Khan AS, Ksiazek TG, Shobokshi O, 2003. Rift Valley fever epidemic in Saudi Arabia: epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. Clin Infect Dis 37: 10841092.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Rift Valley fever outbreak–Kenya, November 2006–January 2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56: 7376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007. Outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Kenya, Somalia and United Republic of Tanzania, December 2006–April 2007. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 82: 169178.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Wong KT, Shieh WJ, Kumar S, Norain K, Abdullah W, Guarner J, Goldsmith CS, Chua KB, Lam SK, Tan CT, Goh KJ, Chong HT, Jusoh R, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Group NVPW, 2002. Nipah virus infection: pathology and pathogenesis of an emerging paramyxoviral zoonosis. Am J Pathol 161: 21532167.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Genrich GL, Guarner J, Paddock CD, Shieh WJ, Greer PW, Barnwell JW, Zaki SR, 2007. Fatal malaria infection in travelers: novel immunohistochemical assays for the detection of Plasmodium falciparum in tissues and implications for pathogenesis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 76: 251259.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Zaki SR, Shieh WJ, 1996. Leptospirosis associated with outbreak of acute febrile illness and pulmonary haemorrhage, Nicaragua, 1995. The Epidemic Working Group at Ministry of Health in Nicaragua. Lancet 347: 535536.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Abdel-Wahab KS, El Baz LM, El-Tayeb EM, Omar H, Ossman MA, Yasin W, 1978. Rift Valley Fever virus infections in Egypt: pathological and virological findings in man. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 72: 392396.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Arborio M, Hall WC, 1989. Diagnosis of a human case of Rift Valley fever by immunoperoxidase demonstration of antigen in fixed liver tissue. Res Virol 140: 165168.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Coetzer JA, 1977. The pathology of Rift Valley fever. I. Lesions occurring in natural cases in new-born lambs. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 44: 205211.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Coetzer JA, Ishak KG, 1982. Sequential development of the liver lesions in new-born lambs infected with Rift Valley fever virus. I. Macroscopic and microscopic pathology. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 49: 103108.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Coetzer JA, 1982. The pathology of Rift Valley fever. II. Lesions occurring in field cases in adult cattle, calves and aborted foetuses. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 49: 1117.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Cosgriff TM, Morrill JC, Jennings GB, Hodgson LA, Slayter MV, Gibbs PH, Peters CJ, 1989. Hemostatic derangement produced by Rift Valley fever virus in rhesus monkeys. Rev Infect Dis 11 (Suppl 4): S807S814.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Peters CJ, Jones D, Trotter R, Donaldson J, White J, Stephen E, Slone TW Jr, 1988. Experimental Rift Valley fever in rhesus macaques. Arch Virol 99: 3144.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Van der Lugt JJ, Coetzer JA, Smit MM, 1996. Distribution of viral antigen in tissues of new-born lambs infected with Rift Valley fever virus. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 63: 341347.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Burke-Gaffney HJ, 1965. II. Yellow fever. Trop Dis Bull 62: 7375.

  • 21.

    Walker DH, McCormick JB, Johnson KM, Webb PA, Komba-Kono G, Elliott LH, Gardner JJ, 1982. Pathologic and virologic study of fatal Lassa fever in man. Am J Pathol 107: 349356.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Burt FJ, Swanepoel R, Shieh WJ, Smith JF, Leman PA, Greer PW, Coffield LM, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, Zaki SR, 1997. Immunohistochemical and in situ localization of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in human tissues and implications for CCHF pathogenesis. Arch Pathol Lab Med 121: 839846.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Rippey JJ, Schepers NJ, Gear JH, 1984. The pathology of Marburg virus disease. S Afr Med J 66: 5054.

  • 24.

    Zaki SR, Shieh WJ, Greer PW, Goldsmith CS, Ferebee T, Katshitshi J, Tshioko FK, Bwaka MA, Swanepoel R, Calain P, Khan AS, Lloyd E, Rollin PE, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, 1999. A novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. Commission de Lutte contre les Epidemies a Kikwit. J Infect Dis 179 (Suppl 1): S36S47.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Kamal SA, 2009. Pathological studies on postvaccinal reactions of Rift Valley fever in goats. Virol J 6: 94.

  • 26.

    Zaki SR, Greer PW, Coffield LM, Goldsmith CS, Nolte KB, Foucar K, Feddersen RM, Zumwalt RE, Miller GL, Khan AS, Khabbaz RF, Ksiazek TG, Peters CJ, 1995. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Pathogenesis of an emerging infectious disease. Am J Pathol 146: 552579.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Geisbert TW, Jaax NK, 1998. Marburg hemorrhagic fever: report of a case studied by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Ultrastruct Pathol 22: 317.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Bray M, 2005. Pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fever. Curr Opin Immunol 17: 399403.

  • 29.

    Peters CJ, Liu CT, Anderson GW Jr, Morrill JC, Jahrling PB, 1989. Pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers: Rift Valley fever and Lassa fever contrasted. Rev Infect Dis 11 (Suppl 4): S743S749.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pathologic Studies on Suspect Animal and Human Cases of Rift Valley Fever from an Outbreak in Eastern Africa, 2006–2007

View More View Less
  • Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Mycotics Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; Bacterial Diseases Branch, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Epidemiology Section, Preventive Department, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Hospital Services Department, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Office of the Director, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia; International Emerging Infections Program, Global Disease Detection Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya; Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Department of Disease Control and Prevention, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP), Nairobi, Kenya

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an important viral zoonotic disease in Africa with periodic outbreaks associated with severe disease, death, and economic hardship. During the 2006–2007 outbreaks in Eastern Africa, postmortem and necropsy tissue samples from 14 animals and 20 humans clinically suspected of RVF were studied with histopathologic evaluation and immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Six animal and 11 human samples had IHC evidence of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antigens. We found that extensive hepatocellular necrosis without prominent inflammatory cell infiltrates is the most distinctive histopathologic change in liver tissues infected with RVFV. Pathologic studies on postmortem tissue samples can help establish the diagnosis of RVF, differentiating from endemic diseases with clinical manifestations similar to RVF, such as malaria, leptospirosis, or yellow fever.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Wun-Ju Shieh, Infectious Diseases Pathology Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mail Stop G-32, Atlanta, GA 30333. E-mail: wshieh@cdc.gov

Authors' addresses: Wun-Ju Shieh, Chris D. Paddock, and Sherif R. Zaki, Infectious Disease Pathology Branch, Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mails: wshieh@cdc.gov, cdp9@cdc.gov, and sxz1@cdc.gov. Edith Lederman, Division of Infectious Diseases, Naval Medical Center, San Diego, CA, E-mail: Edith.Lederman@med.navy.mil. Carol Y. Rao, Prevention and Response Branch, Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion, National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: cnr3@cdc.gov. L. Hannah Gould, Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Bacterial, and Mycotic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: dvj9@cdc.gov. Mohamed Mohamed and Janeth Mghamba, Epidemiology Section, Preventive Department, Tanzania Ministry of Health and Social Welfare, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, E-mails: mahd67@yahoo.com and mashaka_2000@yahoo.com. Fausta Mosha, African Field Epidemiology Network, Tanzania Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, E-mail: fausta_mosha@yahoo.com. Peter Bloland, Office of the Director, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: pbb1@cdc.gov. M. Kariuki Njenga and Robert F. Breiman, International Emerging Infections Program, Global Disease Detection Division, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mails: knjenga@ke.cdc.gov and rbeiman@ke.cdc.gov. David Mutonga and Amwayi A. Samuel, Ministry of Public Health and Sanitation, Department of Disease Control and Prevention, Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programme (FELTP), Nairobi, Kenya, E-mails: doctordavidm2000@yahoo.com and amwayi2004@yahoo.com. Jeannette Guarner, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine at Emory University, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory University Hospital, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: jguarne@emory.edu.

Save