Rift Valley Fever Virus Epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: The Entomologic Investigations

Rosemary Sang Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Elizabeth Kioko Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Joel Lutomiah Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Marion Warigia Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Caroline Ochieng Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Monica O'Guinn Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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John S. Lee Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Hellen Koka Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Marvin Godsey Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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David Hoel Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Hanafi Hanafi Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Barry Miller Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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David Schnabel Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Robert F. Breiman Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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Jason Richardson Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya; United States Army Medical Research Unit (USAMRU), Village Market, Nairobi, Kenya; USAMRIID, Frederick, Maryland; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne and Enteric Diseases, Foothills Campus, Fort Collins, Colorado; Vector Biology Research Program, United States Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3, Cairo, Egypt; International Emerging Infections Program, CDC-Kenya

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In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including Aedes mcintoshi/circumluteolus (26 pools), Aedes ochraceus (23 pools), Mansonia uniformis (15 pools); Culex poicilipes, Culex bitaeniorhynchus (3 pools each); Anopheles squamosus, Mansonia africana (2 pools each); Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes pembaensis (1 pool each). Positive Ae. pembaensis, Cx. univittatus, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Rosemary Sang, Arbovirology/Hemorrhagic Fevers Laboratory, Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), P.O. Box 54628, Nairobi, Kenya. E-mail: rsang@kemri.org

Financial support: This work received financial assistance from GEIS program, USAMRU-Kenya, the Global Disease Detection program, CDC – Kenya, and Kenya Medical Research Institute.

Disclosure: This manuscript is published with permission from the director, Kenya Medical Research Institute.

Authors' addresses: Rosemary Sang, Joel Lutomiah, and Marion Warigia, Arbovirology/Hemorrhagic Fevers Laboratory, Centre for Virus Research, Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI), Nairobi, Kenya, E-mails: rsang@kemri.org, jlutomiah@kemri.org, and mwarigia@kemri.org. Elizabeth Kioko, Caroline Ochieng, Hellen Koka, and David Schnabel, US Army Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mails: ekioko@wrp-ksm.org, COchieng@wrp-nbo.org, hkoka@wrp-nbo.org, and DSchnabel@wrp-nbo.org. Monica O'Guinn and John S. Lee, US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD, E-mails: monica.oguinn@us.army.mil and john.s.lee@us.army.mil. Marvin Godsey and Barry Miller, Division of Vector-borne Infections Diseases, National Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: mjg9@cdc.gov and brm4@cdc.gov. David Hoel, Navy Marine Corps Public Health Center Detachment, Center for Medical Agricultural, and Veterinary Entomology, Gainesville, FL, E-mail: HoelD@NAMRU3.med.navy.mil. Hanafi Hanafi, US Naval Medical Research Unit Number Three, Abbassia, Cairo, Egypt, E-mail: Hanafi.Hanafi.eg@med.navy.mil. Robert F. Breiman, International Emerging Infections Program, CDC–Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, E-mail: Rbreiman@ke.cdc.gov. Jason Richardson, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand, E-mail: Jason.Richardson@afrims.org.

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