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Salivary Polytene Chromosome Map of Anopheles darlingi, the Main Vector of Neotropical Malaria

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  • The National Institute of Amazonian Research (INPA) and Coordination of Health Science Research, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Academic Center of Vitória, Federal University of Pernambuco, Vitória de Santo Antão, PE, Brazil; Graduate Program in Genetics, Conservation and Evolutionary Biology, INPA, Manaus, AM, Brazil; Department of Genetics, Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

New photomap of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, 1926, is described for a population from Guajará-Mirim, State of Rondonia, Brazil. The number of sections in the previous A. darlingi reference map was maintained and new subsections were added to the five chromosome arms. Breakage points of paracentric inversions had been previously incorporated into the photomap of this species. An additional inversion is reported, called 3Lc, totaling 14 inversions in the A. darlingi chromosome arms. The proposed photomap is potentially useful for further evolutionary studies in addition to physical and in silico chromosome mapping using A. darlingi genomic and transcriptome sequences. Furthermore, in our attempt to compare sections of the 2R chromosome arm of A. darlingi with Anopheles funestus, Anopheles stephensi, and Anopheles gambiae, we found great differences in the arrangement of the polytene chromosome bands, which are consistent with the known phylogenetic divergence of these species.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Míriam S. Rafael, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Laboratório de Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Departmento de Ciências da Saúde, Av. André Araújo, 2936, Aleixo, 69060-001 Manaus, AM, Brazil. E-mail: msrafael@inpa.gov.br

Financial support: We thank the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – CAPES (PROCAD – Process no. 023/2006), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq, Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia – MCT, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia – INPA (Process no. 014/2008), the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas – FAPEAM (PIPT and Infraestructure projects), PIATAM/Petrobrás, Ana Tereza Vasconcelos from the Laboratório Nacional de Computação Científica – LNCC, Coordinator of the Complete Genome Project A. darlingi and the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Pernambuco – FACEPE (APQ-0757-2.02/06 process), for financial support.

Authors' addresses: Míriam S. Rafael and Wanderli P. Tadei, Coordenação de Pesquis as em Ciências da Saúde, Laboratório de Vetores de Malária e Dengue, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil, E-mails: msrafael@inpa.gov.br and tadei@inpa.gov.br. Cláudia Rohde, Centro Acadêmico de Vitória, Núcleo de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Vitoria de Santo Antão, Pernambuco, Brazil, E-mail: claudiarohde@yahoo.com. Letícia C. Bridi, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Genética, Conservação e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, AM, Brazil, E-mail: lcbridi@gmail.com. Vera Lúcia da Silva Valente Gaiesky, Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, E-mail: 00004887@ufrgs.br.

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