Comparing the Effectiveness of Malaria Vector-Control Interventions Through a Mathematical Model

Nakul Chitnis Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; MACEPA, PATH, Ferney-Voltaire, France

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Allan Schapira Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; MACEPA, PATH, Ferney-Voltaire, France

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Thomas Smith Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; MACEPA, PATH, Ferney-Voltaire, France

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Richard Steketee Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; MACEPA, PATH, Ferney-Voltaire, France

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Although some malaria-control programs are beginning to combine insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), little is known about the effectiveness of such combinations. We use a mathematical model to compare the effectiveness of ITNs and IRS with dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) or bendiocarb, applied singly and in combination, in an epidemiological setting based in Namawala, Tanzania, with Anopheles gambiae as the primary vector. Our model indicates that although both IRS (with DDT) and ITNs provide personal protection, humans with only ITNs are better protected than those with only IRS, and suggests that high coverage of IRS with bendiocarb may interrupt transmission, as can simultaneous high coverage of ITNs and IRS with DDT. When adding a second vector-control intervention, it is more effective to cover the unprotected population first. Although our model includes some assumptions and approximations that remain to be addressed, these findings should be useful for prioritizing and designing future field research.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Nakul Chitnis, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Postfach, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland. E-mail: Nakul.Chitnis@unibas.ch

Authors' addresses: Nakul Chitnis, Allan Schapira, and Thomas Smith, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Socinstrasse 57, Postfach, CH-4002 Basel Switzerland, E-mails: Nakul.Chitnis@unibas.ch, a.schapira@bluewin.ch, and Thomas-A.Smith@unibas.ch. Richard Steketee, Malaria Control and Evaluation Partnership in Africa (MACEPA), PATH Batiment Avant Centre, 13 Chemin du Levant, 01210 Ferney-Voltaire, France, E-mail: rsteketee@path.org.

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