First Evidence of High Knockdown Resistance Frequency in Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia

Delenasaw Yewhalaw Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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Wim Van Bortel Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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Leen Denis Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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Marc Coosemans Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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Luc Duchateau Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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Niko Speybroeck Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia; Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium; Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Institute of Health and Society, Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium

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The status of knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation was investigated in the major malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) from Ethiopia. Among 240 mosquito samples from 15 villages of southwestern Ethiopia that were screened by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction for kdr mutations, the West African kdr mutation (L1014F) was detected in almost all specimens (98.5%), whereas the East African kdr mutation (L1014S) was absent. Moreover, the mortality of An. gambiae s.l. to diagnostic dosages of 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, and 0.05% deltamethrin from bioassay results was 1.0%, 18.1%, and 82.2%, respectively. We report here the highest kdr allele frequency ever observed in An. arabiensis and its implications in malaria vector control in Ethiopia are discussed.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Niko Speybroeck, Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium or Public Health School, Université Catholique de Louvian, Brussels, Belgium. E-mail: nspeybroeck@itg.be

Financial support: The study received financial support from Flemish Interuniversity Council (VLIR-IUC).

Authors' addresses: Delenasaw Yewhalaw, Department of Biology, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia, E-mail: delenasaw.yewhalaw@ju.edu.et. Wim Van Bortel, Leen Denis, and Marc Coosemans, Department of Parasitology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium. Luc Duchateau, Department of Physiology and Biometrics, University of Ghent, Ghent, Belgium. Niko Speybroeck, Department of Animal Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium or Public Health School, Université Catholique de Louvian, Brussels, Belgium.

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