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The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bed net use and elucidate the effect of daytime bed net use on preventing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) among children in Vietnam. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey and a matched case–control study in Khanh Hoa Province where not only some pre-schoolchildren but also some school children, who take a nap during lunch break prior to returning to school, used bed nets during the day. Among 36,901 children 2–10 years of age, most used untreated bed nets during the night (98.3%) compared with 8.4% during the day. The results of the case–control study, which defined 151 cases who were hospitalized with DHF in the provincial hospitals and 604 age-matched neighborhood controls, did not support our hypothesis that children using untreated bed nets during the day are less likely to be hospitalized with DHF (adjusted odds ratio = 0.56, 95% confidence interval = 0.23–1.39).
Financial support: This work was supported by the Center for International Collaborative Research, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan and the program of Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases.
Authors' addresses: Ataru Tsuzuki, Motoi Suzuki, Hideki Yanai, Toru Matsubayashi, Lay-Myint Yoshida, Masahiro Takagi, and Koya Ariyoshi, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan, E-mails: email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com, firstname.lastname@example.org, and email@example.com. Vu Dinh Thiem and Dang Duc Anh, National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Hanoi, Vietnam, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Le Huu Tho and Truong Tan Minh, Khanh Hoa Health Service, Nha Trang, Vietnam, E-mails: firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com. Paul E. Kilgore, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, South Korea, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.