Household-Based Sero-Epidemiologic Survey after a Yellow Fever Epidemic, Sudan, 2005

Eileen C. Farnon Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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L. Hannah Gould Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Kevin S. Griffith Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Magdi S. Osman Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Amgad El Kholy Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Maria-Emanuela Brair Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Amanda J. Panella Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Olga Kosoy Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Janeen J. Laven Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Marvin S. Godsey Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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William Perea Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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Edward B. Hayes Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado; Sudan Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan; Naval Medical Research Unit 3, Cairo, Egypt; World Health Organization, Kadugli, Sudan; World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; Barcelona Center for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain

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From September through early December 2005, an outbreak of yellow fever (YF) occurred in South Kordofan, Sudan, resulting in a mass YF vaccination campaign. In late December 2005, we conducted a serosurvey to assess YF vaccine coverage and to better define the epidemiology of the outbreak in an index village. Of 552 persons enrolled, 95% reported recent YF vaccination, and 25% reported febrile illness during the outbreak period: 13% reported YF-like illness, 4% reported severe YF-like illness, and 12% reported chikungunya-like illness. Of 87 persons who provided blood samples, all had positive YF serologic results, including three who had never been vaccinated. There was also serologic evidence of recent or prior chikungunya virus, dengue virus, West Nile virus, and Sindbis virus infections. These results indicate that YF virus and chikungunya virus contributed to the outbreak. The high prevalence of YF antibody among vaccinees indicates that vaccination was effectively implemented in this remotely located population.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Eileen C. Farnon, Special Pathogens Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Road NE, Mailstop G-14, Atlanta, GA 30329. E-mail: efarnon@cdc.gov

Authors' addresses: Eileen C. Farnon, Divison of Healthcare Quality Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: efarnon@cdc.gov. L. Hannah Gould, Division of Parasitic Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, E-mail: dvj9@cdc.gov. Kevin S. Griffith, Amanda J. Panella, Olga Kosoy, Janeen J. Laven, and Marvin S. Godsey, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mails: kkg8@cdc.gov, apanella@cdc.gov, okosoy@cdc.gov, jlaven@cdc.gov, and mjg9@cdc.gov. Magdi S. Osman, Federal Ministry of Health, Khartoum, Sudan, E-mail: mgdosman@yahoo.com. Amgad El Kholy, World Health Organization-Sudan, Khartoum, Sudan, E-mail: elkholya@sud.emro.who.int. Maria-Emanuela Brair, South Kordofan United Nations Population Fund, Kadugli, Sudan, E-mail: briar@unfpa.org. William Perea, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, E-mail: pereaw@who.int. Edward B. Hayes, Barcelona Centre for International Health Research, Barcelona, Spain, E-mail: ned.hayes@cresib.cat.

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