Mosquitoes and Mosquito-Borne Arboviruses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau—Focused on the Qinghai Area, China

Wen-Juan Li Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Jing-Lin Wang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Ming-Hua Li Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Shi-Hong Fu Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Huan-Yu Wang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Zhi-Yu Wang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Shuang-Ying Jiang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Xue-Wen Wang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Peng Guo Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Sheng-Cang Zhao Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Yan Shi Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Nan-Nan Lu Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Roger S. Nasci Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Qing Tang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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Guo-Dong Liang Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, Jinan, China; State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China; Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Xining, China; Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, Colorado

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An investigation was conducted to identify the distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China from July to August in 2007. A total of 8,147 mosquitoes representing six species from three genera (Aedes, Culex, and Anopheles) were collected in three locations (Geermu city, altitude of 2,780 m; Xining city, 2,200 m; Minhe county, 1,700 m). Six virus isolates were obtained including Tahyna virus (TAHV), Liaoning virus, and Culex pipiens pallens Densovirus. A serosurvey showed immunoglobulin G antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) against TAHV in residents of all three locations. The IFA-positive human samples were confirmed by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) against TAHV with titers ranging from 1:20 to 1:10,240. In addition, TAHV seropositive cows, sheep, and swine were found in these locations. This investigation represents the first isolation of TAHV from Ae. (Och.) detritus and the first evidence of TAHV infection in residents and livestock in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Guo-Dong Liang, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 100# Ying Xin St. Xuan Wu District, Beijing 100052, China. E-mail: gdliang@hotmail.com
† Wen-Juan Li and Jing-Lin Wang contributed equally to the article.

Financial support: This work was supported by Grant 2003BA712A08-01 from the Ministry of Science and Technology of China, Grant 2008SKLID105 from the Development Grant of State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, and Grant U19-GH000004 from the China CDC–United States CDC Cooperative Agreement.

Authors' addresses: Wen-Juan Li, Jing-Lin Wang, Ming-Hua Li, Shi-Hong Fu, Huan-Yu Wang, Qing Tang, and Guo-Dong Liang, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China, E-mails: liwenjuan_sdu@163.com, wangjinglin107@yahoo.com.cn, minghua-li@hotmail.com, fushihong_fsh@hotmail.com, rainoffall@yahoo.com, qtang04@sina.com, and gdliang@hotmail.com. Wen-Juan Li and Zhi-Yu Wang, Department of Virology, School of Public Health, Shandong University, The Key Laboratory of Experimental Teratology, Ministry of Education, China, E-mails: liwenjuan_sdu@163.com and Zhiyu.wang@sdu.edu.cn. Shuang-Ying Jiang, Xue-Wen Wang, Peng Guo, Sheng-Cang Zhao, Yan Shi, and Nan-Nan Lu, Health Inspection and Testing Center, Qinghai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, China, E-mails: ShuangYing_Jiang@163.com, XueWen_Wang_qh@163.com, Peng_Guo_qh@163.com, Shengcang_zhao@163.com, qhcdcfyk@163.com, and qhlunannan@163.com. Roger S. Nasci, Division of Vector-Borne Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Fort Collins, CO, E-mail: rsn0@cdc.gov.

Reprint requests: Guo-Dong Liang, State Key Laboratory for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, Institute for Viral Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 100# Yingxin Street, Xuanwu District, Beijing 100052, China, E-mail: gdliang@hotmail.com.

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