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Spatio-Temporal Patterns in kdr Frequency in Permethrin and DDT Resistant Anopheles gambiae s.s. from Uganda

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  • 1 Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerp, Belgium; Epidemiological Surveillance Division, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda; Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium

The planned upscaling of vector control strategies requires insight into the epidemiological consequences of vector resistance. Therefore, the pyrethroid and DDT resistance status of Anopheles gambiae s.l. was assessed in Uganda from 2004 to 2006, and spatial and seasonal variations in knockdown resistance (kdr) frequencies were analyzed in terms of epidemiological significance. Anopheles gambiae s.l. was DDT and pyrethroid resistant in central and eastern Uganda. The L1014S kdr allele frequencies varied from 3% to 48% in An. gambiae s.s. Although the homozygous resistant genotype was the most prevalent genotype among survivors, the genotypes could not entirely explain the bioassay results. In the dry season, the kdr frequency was significantly higher in Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes, indicating that mosquitoes bearing a kdr mutation have a better adult survival, hence a higher likelihood of becoming infectious. This study showed that kdr might have an epidemiological impact that could jeopardize the vector control strategies.

Author Notes

*Address correspondence to Katrijn Verhaeghen, Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Nationalestraat 155, B-2000 Antwerpen, Belgium. E-mail: kverhaeghen@itg.be

Financial support: This research was financed by the Belgian Directorate-General for Development Co-operation and was funded by a Ph.D. grant of the Institute for the Promotion of Innovation through Science and Technology in Flanders (IWT-Vlaanderen).

Authors' addresses: Katrijn Verhaeghen, Wim Van Bortel, and Patricia Roelants, Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium, E-mails: kverhaeghen@itg.be, wvbortel@itg.be, and proelants@itg.be. Paul Edward Okello, Kampala, Uganda, E-mail: okellopaul2000@yahoo.co.uk. Ambrose Talisuna, Health Services, Epidemiology and Surveillance, Ministry of Health, Kampala, Uganda, E-mail: atalisuna@yahoo.com. Marc Coosemans, Department of Parasitology, Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine, Antwerpen, Belgium and Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical, Veterinary and Biomedical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium, E-mail: mcoosemans@itg.be.

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