Schistosomiasis PCR in Vaginal Lavage as an Indicator of Genital Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Rural Zimbabwean Women

Eyrun Floerecke Kjetland Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Robert Jan Ten Hove Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Exenevia Gomo Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Nicholas Midzi Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Lovemore Gwanzura Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Peter Mason Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Henrik Friis Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Jaco J. Verweij Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Svein Gunnar Gundersen Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Patricia D. Ndhlovu Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Takafira Mduluza Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Lisette Van Lieshout Centre for Imported and Tropical Diseases, Ullevaal Department of Infectious Diseases, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Parasitology, Leiden, The Netherlands; College of Health Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe; National Institute for Health Research (formerly Blair Research Institute), Harare, Zimbabwe; International Nutrition and Health Department, University of Copenhagen, Denmark; Research Unit, Sorlandet Hospital, Kristiansand, Norway; Centre for Development Studies, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway

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Schistosoma real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is sensitive and specific in urine and stool. We sought to explore the relationship between genital schistosomiasis and the Schistosoma PCR in women. PCR was run on 83 vaginal lavage samples from a rural Zimbabwean population. Women underwent clinical and colposcopic investigations, analyses for sexually transmitted infections, and genital schistosomiasis. Thirty samples were positive for Schistosoma PCR: 12 were strong and 18 were weak positive. Sensitivity (67%) and specificity (83%) were best in women below the age of 25 years. A positive schistosome PCR result was associated with S. haematobium ova in genital tissue, so-called sandy patches, and bleeding. Prevalence determined by PCR were lower and real-time PCR values were weaker in older women. The presence of Schistosoma DNA may be greater in the recent lesions (e.g., in younger women). For diagnosis in rural areas and in large studies, Schistosoma PCR could become a supplement to gynecologic examinations.

Author Notes

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