Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Malaria in Yunnan Province, China

Feng-Ming Hui State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Bing Xu State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Zhang-Wei Chen State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Xiao Cheng State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Lu Liang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Hua-Bing Huang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Li-Qun Fang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Hong Yang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Hong-Ning Zhou State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Heng-Lin Yang State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Xiao-Nong Zhou State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Wu-Chun Cao State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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Peng Gong State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, Jointly Sponsored by the Institute of Remote Sensing Applications of Chinese Academy of Sciences and Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; College of Global Change and Earth System Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; Yunnan Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Pu’er, People’s Republic of China; National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China

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The spatio-temporal distribution pattern of malaria in Yunnan Province, China was studied using a geographic information system technique. Both descriptive and temporal scan statistics revealed seasonal fluctuation in malaria incidences in Yunnan Province with only one peak during 1995–2000, and two apparent peaks from 2001 to 2005. Spatial autocorrelation analysis indicated that malaria incidence was not randomly distributed in the province. Further analysis using spatial scan statistics discovered that the high risk areas were mainly clustered at the bordering areas with Myanmar and Laos, and in Yuanjiang River Basin. There were obvious associations between Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodoium falciparum malaria incidences and climatic factors with a clear 1-month lagged effect, especially in cluster areas. All these could provide information on where and when malaria prevention and control measures would be applied. These findings imply that countermeasures should target high risk areas at suitable times, when climatic factors facilitate the transmission of malaria.

Author Notes

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    Ministry of Health, 2005. Malaria Surveillance Project in China.

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