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Development of a Species-Specific Coproantigen ELISA for Human Taenia solium Taeniasis

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  • 1 Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, School of Veterinary Medicine, Lima, Peru; Instituto de Ciencias Neurológicas, Cysticercosis Unit, Lima, Peru; Cysticercosis Working Group in Peru, Lima, Peru; Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Department of Microbiology, School of Sciences, Lima, Perú; Cestode Zoonoses Research Group, Biomedical Sciences Research Institute and School of Environment and Life Sciences, University of Salford, Greater Manchester, United Kingdom
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Taenia solium causes human neurocysticercosis and is endemic in underdeveloped countries where backyard pig keeping is common. Microscopic fecal diagnostic methods for human T. solium taeniasis are not very sensitive, and Taenia saginata and Taenia solium eggs are indistinguishable under the light microscope. Coproantigen (CoAg) ELISA methods are very sensitive, but currently only genus (Taenia) specific. This paper describes the development of a highly species-specific coproantigen ELISA test to detect T. solium intestinal taeniasis. Sensitivity was maintained using a capture antibody of rabbit IgG against T. solium adult whole worm somatic extract, whereas species specificity was achieved by utilization of an enzyme-conjugated rabbit IgG against T. solium adult excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. A known panel of positive and negative human fecal samples was tested with this hybrid sandwich ELISA. The ELISA test gave 100% specificity and 96.4% sensitivity for T. solium tapeworm carriers (N = 28), with a J index of 0.96. This simple ELISA incorporating anti-adult somatic and anti-adult ES antibodies provides the first potentially species-specific coproantigen test for human T. solium taeniasis.

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