Dubey JP, 2004. Toxoplasmosis–a waterborne zoonosis. Vet Parasitol 126 :57–72.
Montoya JG, Liesenfeld O, 2004. Toxoplasmosis. Lancet 363 :1965–1976.
Zuber PL, Jacquier P, Hohlfeld P, Walker AM, 1995. Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Switzerland: a cross-sectional evaluation of regional and age-specific lifetime average annual incidence. Am J Epidemiol 141 :659–666.
Tenter AM, Heckeroth AR, Weiss LM, 2000. Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans. Int J Parasitol 30 :1217–1258.
Elsheikha HM, 2008. Congenital toxoplasmosis: priorities for further health promotion action. Public Health 122 :335–353.
Frenkel JK, Ruiz A, Chinchilla M, 1975. Soil survival of Toxoplasma oocysts in Kansas and Costa Rica. Am J Trop Med Hyg 24 :439–443.
Coutinho SG, Souza WJS, Camillo-Coura L, Marzochi MCA, Amendoeira MRR, 1981. Results of indirect immunofluorescent reactions to toxoplasmosis in 6079 ambulatory patients or pregnant women in Rio de Janeiro during the years 1971 to 1977. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 23 :48–56.
Guimarães AC, Kawarabayashi M, Borges MM, Tolezano JE, Andrade Junior HF, 1993. Regional variation in toxoplasmosis seronegativity in the São Paulo metropolitan region. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 35 :479–483.
Spalding SM, Amendoeira MRR, Klein CH, Ribeiro LC, 2005. Serological screening and toxoplasmosis exposure factors among pregnant women in South of Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 38 :172–177.
Bahia-Oliveira LM, Jones JL, Azevedo-Silva J, Alves CC, Oréfice F, Addiss DG, 2003. Highly endemic, waterborne toxoplasmosis in north Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 9 :55–62.
Francisco FM, de Souza SLP, Gennari SM, Pinheiro SR, Muradian V, Soares RM, 2006. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in a low-income community in the São Paulo Municipality, SP, Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 48 :167–170.
Garcia JL, Navarro IT, Ogawa L, de Oliveira RC, Kobilka E, 1999. Seroprevalence, epidemiology and ocular evaluation of human toxoplasmosis in the rural zone of Jaguapitã (Paraná), Brasil. Rev Panam Salud Publica 6 :157–163.
Cavalcanti GT, Aguiar DM, Camargo LMA, Labruna MB, de Andrade HF, Meireles LR, Dubey JP, Thulliez P, Dias RA, Gennari SM, 2006. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in humans from rural Western Amazon, Brazil. J Parasitol 92 :647–649.
Baruzzi RG, 1970. Contribution to the study of the toxoplasmosis epidemiology. Serologic survey among the Indians of the Upper Xingu River, central Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 14 :92–104.
Leser PG, Camargo ME, Baruzzi RG, 1977. Toxoplasmosis serologic tests in Brazilian Indians (Kren-Akore) of recent contact with civilized man. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 19 :232–236.
Lovelace JK, Moraes MAP, Hagerby E, 1977. Toxoplasmosis among the Ticuna Indians in the State of Amazonas, Brazil. Trop Geogr Med 30 :295–300.
Sobral CA, Amendoeira MRR, Teva A, Patel BN, Klein CH, 2005. Seroprevalence of infection with Toxoplasma gondii in indigenous Brazilian populations. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72 :37–41.
da Silva-Nunes M, Codeço CT, Malafronte RS, da Silva NS, Juncansen C, Muniz PT, Ferreira MU, 2008. Malaria on the Amazonian frontier: transmission dynamics, risk factors, spatial distribution, and prospects for control. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79 :624–635.
Filmer D, Pritchett LH, 2001. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data-or tear: an application to educational enrollments in states of India. Demography 38 :115–132.
Camargo ME, Ferreira AW, Mineo JR, Takiguti CK, Nakahara OS, 1978. Immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and defined toxoplasmosis serological patterns. Infect Immun 21 :55–58.
Venkatesan P, Wakelin D, 1993. ELISAs for parasitologists: or lies, damned lies and ELISAs. Parasitol Today 9 :228–232.
Ferreira MU, Camargo LMA, Ferreira CS, 1994. The median age of primary malaria infection in an Amazonian community: probit analysis of cross-sectional data. Acta Trop 58 :73–78.
Kulldorff M, Nagarwalla N, 1995. Spatial disease clusters: detection and inference. Stat Med 14 :799–819.
de la Rosa M, Bolívar J, Pérez HA, 1999. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Amerindians of Venezuelan Amazon. Medicina (B Aires) 59 :759–762.
Heukelbach J, Meyer-Cirkel V, Moura RCS, Gomide M, Queiroz JAN, Saweljew P, Liesenfeld O, 2007. Waterborne toxoplasmosis, Northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis 13 :287–289.
Ertug S, Okyay P, Turkmen M, Yuksel H, 2005. Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma infection among pregnant women in Aydin Province, Turkey. BMC Public Health 5 :66.
López-Castillo CA, Díaz-Ramírez J, Gómez-Marín JE, 2005. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in Armenia, Colombia. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota) 7 :180–190.
Cook AJ, Gilbert RE, Buffolano W, Zufferey J, Petersen E, Jenum PA, Foulon W, Semprini AE, Dunn DT, 2000. Sources of Toxoplasma infection in pregnant women: European multi-centre case-control study. European Research Network on Congenital Toxoplasmosis. BMJ 321 :142–147.
Souza EA, da Silva-Nunes M, Malafronte RS, Muniz PT, Cardoso MA, Ferreira MU, 2007. Prevalence and spatial distribution of intestinal parasitic infections in a rural Amazonian settlement, Acre State, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica 23 :427–434.
de Oliveira L, Costa Junior LM, de Melo C, Ramos Silva J, Bevilaqua CM, Azevedo S, Muradian V, Araujo D, Dubey JP, Gennari SM, 2009. Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free-range chickens from the northeast region of Brazil. J Parasitol 95 :235–237.
Dubey JP, 2000. Sources of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy. Until rates of congenital toxoplasmosis fall, control measures are essential. BMJ 321 :127–128.
Chintana T, Sukthana Y, Bunyakai B, Lekkla A, 1998. Toxoplasma gondii antibody in pregnant women with and without HIV infection. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 29 :383–386.
Sukthana Y, Kaewkungwal J, Jantanavivat C, Lekkla A, Chiabchalard R, Aumarm W, 2003. Toxoplasma gondii antibody in Thai cats and their owners. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 34 :733–738.
Ulmanen I, Leinikki P, 1975. The role of pet cats in the seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis. Scand J Infect Dis 7 :67–71.
Kapperud G, Jenum PA, Stray-Pedersen B, Melby KK, Eslild A, Eng J, 1996. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnancy: results of a prospective case-control study in Norway. Am J Epidemiol 144 :405–412.
Taylor MR, Lennon B, Holland CV, Cafferkey M, 1997. Community study of Toxoplasma antibodies in urban and rural schoolchildren aged 4 to 18 years. Arch Dis Child 77 :406–409.
Alvarado-Esquivel C, Sifuentes-Alvarez A, Narro-Duarte SG, Estrada-Martínez S, Díaz-García JH, Liesenfeld O, Martínez-García SA, Canales-Molina A, 2006. Seroepidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii infection in pregnant women in a public hospital in northern Mexico. BMC Infect Dis 6 :113.
Sukthana Y, 2006. Toxoplasmosis: beyond animals to humans. Trends Parasitol 22 :137–142.
Rubinsky-Elefant G, da Silva-Nunes M, Malafronte RS, Muniz PT, Ferreira MU, 2008. Human toxocariasis in rural Brazilian Amazonia: seroprevalence, risk factors, and spatial distribution. Am J Trop Med Hyg 79 :93–98.
|Past two years||Past Year||Past 30 Days|
|Full Text Views||255||99||1|
IgG antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii were detected in, March–April 2004, in 65.8% (95% confidence interval, 60.8–70.8%) of 342 systematically sampled subjects 5–90 years of age (87.5% of the eligible) living in a rural settlement in Amazonia, with a seroconversion rate of 9% over 1 year of follow-up of 99 seronegative subjects. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified age as the only significant independent predictor of seropositivity at the baseline. Each additional year of age increases the odds of being seropositive by 6%, and 76.8% of the subjects are expected to be seropositive at 30 years of age. A single high-prevalence spatial cluster, comprising 11.9% of the seropositive subjects, was detected in the area; households in the cluster were less likely to have dogs as pets and their heads had a lower education level, when compared with households located outside the cluster. The challenges for preventing human toxoplasmosis in tropical rural settings are discussed.